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Flashcards in CH 1 - Cell Injury Deck (202)
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1

Hyperplasia is defined as

an increase in the number of cells in an organ or tissue

2

hypertrophy and hyperplasia is often a response to

trophic signals or increased functional demand and is commonly a normal process

3

Erythroid hyperplasia is typically seen in

people living at high altitude

4

What happens in erythroid hyperplasia

Low oxygen tension evokes the production of erythropoietin which promotes the survival and proliferation of erythroid precursors in the bone marrow

5

The cellular and molecular mechanisms that are responsible for hyperplasia clearly relate to the control of

cell proliferation ie cell cycle

6

Fat necrosis

Saponification of fat derived from peripancreatic fat cells exposed to pancreatic enzymes is a typical feature of fat necrosis

7

Fat necrosis and acute pancreatitis

Lipase released from pancreatic acinar cells during an attack of acute pancreatitis hydrolyzes fat into fatty acids and glycerol Free fatty acids bind with calcium to form soaps which is a process known as saponification

8

Hypocalcemia and acute pancreatitis

Entry of calcium ions into the injured tissue reduces the level of calcium in blood Hypocalcemia is therefore a typical finding in patients who had a recent bout of acute pancreatitis

9

Patients with acute pancreatitis experience

sudden onset abdominal pain distention and vomiting liquefactive necrosis may also be seen

10

The major adaptive responses of cells to sublethal injury are

atrophy hypertrophy hyperplasia metaplasia dysplasia and intracellular storage

11

Metaplasia is defined as

the conversion of one differentiated cell pathway to another

12

Metaplasia in GERD

Barrets esophagus the esophageal squamous epithelium is replaced by columnar epithelium as a result of chronic gastroesophageal reflux

13

How is the lesion in metaplasia with GERD characterized histologically

by intestine like epithelium composed of goblet cells and cells similar to those of incompletely intestinalized gastric mucosa

14

Squamous metaplasia

occurs in the bronchial epithelium of smokers among other examples

15

Simple aplastic and complex hyperplasia are

preneoplastic changes that are most often described in the uterine endometrium of postmenopausal women

16

Metastatic calcifcation

is associated with an increased serum calcium concentration hypercalcemia Almost any disorder that increases serum calcium levels can lead to calcification in the alveolar septa of the lung renal tubules and blood vessels

17

Examples that can lead to metastatic calcification

a parathyroid adenoma that produces large quantities of parathyroid hormone multiple opacities in the cornea of a child given large amounts of vitamin D and partially calcified alveolar septa in the lungs of a patient with breast cancer metastatic to bone

18

Breast cancer metastases to bone are often

osteolytic and therefore accompanied by hypercalcemia

19

Dystrophic calcification

has its origin in direct cell injury

20

Arteriosclerosis

is an example of dystrophic calcification

21

Clinically atrophy is recognized as

diminution in the size or function of an organ

22

Atrophy is often seen in

areas of vascular insufficiency or chronic inflammation and may result from disuse

23

Atrophy may be thought of as

an adaptive response to stress in which the cell shuts down its differentiated functions

24

Reduction in the size of an organ may reflect

reversible cell atrophy or may be caused by irreversible loss of cells

25

atrophy of the brain in a patient with Alzheimer disease is

secondary to extensive cell death and the size of the organ cannot be restored

26

Anaplasia

represents lack of differentiated features in a neoplasm

27

Cells that compose an epithelium exhibit

uniformity of size and shape and they undergo maturation in an orderly fashion eg from plump basal cells to flat superficial cells in a squamous epithelium

28

dysplasia

regular appearance is disturbed by 1 variations in the size and shape of the cells 2 enlargement irregularity and hyperchromatism of the nuclei and 3 disorderly arrangement of the cells within the epithelium

29

Dysplasia of the bronchial epithelium is

a reaction of respiratory epithelium to carcinogens in tobacco smoke It is potentially reversible if the patient stops smoking but is considered preneoplastic and may progress to carcinoma

30

Invasiveness

connotes malignant behavior