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Flashcards in CH 1 - Cell Injury Deck (202)
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Hyperplasia is defined as

an increase in the number of cells in an organ or tissue


hypertrophy and hyperplasia is often a response to

trophic signals or increased functional demand and is commonly a normal process


Erythroid hyperplasia is typically seen in

people living at high altitude


What happens in erythroid hyperplasia

Low oxygen tension evokes the production of erythropoietin which promotes the survival and proliferation of erythroid precursors in the bone marrow


The cellular and molecular mechanisms that are responsible for hyperplasia clearly relate to the control of

cell proliferation ie cell cycle


Fat necrosis

Saponification of fat derived from peripancreatic fat cells exposed to pancreatic enzymes is a typical feature of fat necrosis


Fat necrosis and acute pancreatitis

Lipase released from pancreatic acinar cells during an attack of acute pancreatitis hydrolyzes fat into fatty acids and glycerol Free fatty acids bind with calcium to form soaps which is a process known as saponification


Hypocalcemia and acute pancreatitis

Entry of calcium ions into the injured tissue reduces the level of calcium in blood Hypocalcemia is therefore a typical finding in patients who had a recent bout of acute pancreatitis


Patients with acute pancreatitis experience

sudden onset abdominal pain distention and vomiting liquefactive necrosis may also be seen


The major adaptive responses of cells to sublethal injury are

atrophy hypertrophy hyperplasia metaplasia dysplasia and intracellular storage


Metaplasia is defined as

the conversion of one differentiated cell pathway to another


Metaplasia in GERD

Barrets esophagus the esophageal squamous epithelium is replaced by columnar epithelium as a result of chronic gastroesophageal reflux


How is the lesion in metaplasia with GERD characterized histologically

by intestine like epithelium composed of goblet cells and cells similar to those of incompletely intestinalized gastric mucosa


Squamous metaplasia

occurs in the bronchial epithelium of smokers among other examples


Simple aplastic and complex hyperplasia are

preneoplastic changes that are most often described in the uterine endometrium of postmenopausal women


Metastatic calcifcation

is associated with an increased serum calcium concentration hypercalcemia Almost any disorder that increases serum calcium levels can lead to calcification in the alveolar septa of the lung renal tubules and blood vessels


Examples that can lead to metastatic calcification

a parathyroid adenoma that produces large quantities of parathyroid hormone multiple opacities in the cornea of a child given large amounts of vitamin D and partially calcified alveolar septa in the lungs of a patient with breast cancer metastatic to bone


Breast cancer metastases to bone are often

osteolytic and therefore accompanied by hypercalcemia


Dystrophic calcification

has its origin in direct cell injury



is an example of dystrophic calcification


Clinically atrophy is recognized as

diminution in the size or function of an organ


Atrophy is often seen in

areas of vascular insufficiency or chronic inflammation and may result from disuse


Atrophy may be thought of as

an adaptive response to stress in which the cell shuts down its differentiated functions


Reduction in the size of an organ may reflect

reversible cell atrophy or may be caused by irreversible loss of cells


atrophy of the brain in a patient with Alzheimer disease is

secondary to extensive cell death and the size of the organ cannot be restored



represents lack of differentiated features in a neoplasm


Cells that compose an epithelium exhibit

uniformity of size and shape and they undergo maturation in an orderly fashion eg from plump basal cells to flat superficial cells in a squamous epithelium



regular appearance is disturbed by 1 variations in the size and shape of the cells 2 enlargement irregularity and hyperchromatism of the nuclei and 3 disorderly arrangement of the cells within the epithelium


Dysplasia of the bronchial epithelium is

a reaction of respiratory epithelium to carcinogens in tobacco smoke It is potentially reversible if the patient stops smoking but is considered preneoplastic and may progress to carcinoma



connotes malignant behavior