Ch 4 - Immunopathology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 4 - Immunopathology Deck (185)
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1

seasonal conjunctivitis is typically caused by

allergies to pollens that are released during a particular time of the year.

2

What is the most common type I hypersensitivity disease in adults?

Allergic rhinitis (hay fever)

3

Allergic rhinitis (hay fever) may be caused by;

pollen, house dust, animal dandruff, and many other allergens.

4

Antigens inhaled react with what?

IgE

5

IgE is attached to

basophils in the nasal mucosa

6

Antigen + IgE attached to basophils in the nasal mucosa triggers

the release of vasoactive substances stored in cytoplasmic granules.

7

the main mediator released from mast cells?

Histamine,

8

Histamine released from mast cells does what?

increases the permeability of mucosal vessels, causing edema and sneezing.

9

What are Type III hypersensitivity reactions are characterized by?

1) immune complex deposition, 2) complement fixation, 3) localized inflammation.

10

What can give rise to a type III response?

Antibody directed against either a circulating antigen or an antigen that is deposited in a tissue

11

What are some diseases that seem to be most clearly attributable to the deposition of immune complexes?

1) systemic lupus erythematosus 2) rheumatoid arthritis 3) varieties of glomerulonephritis.

12

How can Streptoccocal infection lead to nephritic syndrome?

deposition of antigens and antibodies in glomerular basement membranes

13

clinical features of nephritic syndrome

hematuria, oliguria, and hypertension

14

Systemic lupus erythematosus

(SLE) is an autoimmune, inflammatory disease that may involve almost any organ

15

What does SLE characteristically affect?

the kidneys, joints, serous membranes, and skin.

16

In SLE what are autoantibodies formed against?

a variety of self-antigens.

17

What are the most important diagnostic autoantibodies in SLE?

those against nuclear antigens

18

What are the autoantibodies in SLE against nuclear antigens that are most important diagnostically?

antibody to; 1) double-stranded DNA 2) Sm (Smith) antigen - a soluble nuclear antigen complex that is part of the spliceosome

19

High titers for what two autoantibodies (termed antinuclear antibodies) are nearly pathognomonic for SLE?

Those against nuclear antigens - antibody to; 1) double-stranded DNA 2) Sm (Smith) antigen

20

Antibodies to rheumatoid factor are seen in patients with

rheumatoid arthritis.

21

Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies are seen in patients with;

small vessel vasculitis (e.g., Wegener granulomatosis).

22

Acquired deficiencies of early complement components occur in patients with

autoimmune diseases - especially those associated with circulating immune complexes (e.g., systemic lupus erythematosus [SLE]).

23

hypocomplementemia and autoimmune diseases such as SLE

Antigen-antibody complexes formed in the circulation during the active stage of these diseases lead to a marked reduction in circulating levels of complement proteins (hypocomplementemia).

24

Scleroderma is

an autoimmune disease of connective tissue

25

How is scleroderma similar to graft versus host disease?

Circulating male fetal cells have been demonstrated in blood and blood vessel walls of many women with scleroderma who bore male children many years before the disease began. Accordingly, it has been suggested that scleroderma in these patients is similar

26

Antinuclear antibodies for SLE versus scleroderma.

They are common but are usually present in a lower titer than in patients with SLE.

27

Antibodies virtually specific for scleroderma include:

(1) nucleolar autoantibodies (primarily against RNA polymerase); (2) antibodies to Scl-70, a nonhistone nuclear protein topoisomerase; and (3) anticentromere antibodies, which are associated with the “CREST” variant of the disease.

28

The Scl-70 autoantibody

is most common and specific for the diffuse form of scleroderma and is seen in 70% of patients.

29

Autoantibodies to double-stranded DNA are seen in patients with

SLE.

30

Autoantibodies to SS-A/SS-B are seen in patients with

Sjögren syndrome.