Ch 9 - Infectious Diseases Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 9 - Infectious Diseases Deck (385)
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1

What is infectious mononucleosis characterized by?

fever, pharyngitis, lymphadenopathy, and circulating atypical lymphocytes.

2

What is infectious mononucleosis caused by?

This systemic viral infection is caused by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV),

3

EBV

a herpesvirus

4

How is EBV transmitted?

through respiratory droplets and saliva and binds to nasopharyngeal cells and B lymphocytes.

5

In developed countries, infectious mononucleosis commonly affects what aspect of the population?

teenagers and young adults and is often referred to as the “kissing disease.”

6

How does EBV activate T cells?

T cells proliferate in response to activated B lymphocytes and appear in the peripheral blood as atypical lymphocytes.

7

What is commonly seen with EBV?

Anemia and thrombocytopenia are common.

8

In underdeveloped countries, EBV infections are typically seen as what? And are associated with what?

Subclinical infections in childhood and are associated with an increased risk of Burkitt lymphoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

9

What are the atypical lymphocytes seen circulating in patients with infectious mononucleosis?

1) indirectly activated T cells 2) Although EBV infects B cells, the circulating atypical lymphocytes seen in patients with infectious mononucleosis are not immature B cells

10

What is the relationship between the spleen and infectious mononucleosis?

Splenomegaly often develops in patients with infectious mononucleosis due to lymphoid infiltration, hyperplasia, and edema. The enlarged spleen may rupture after minor trauma.

11

Burkitt lymphoma and EBV

it is associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection in certain parts of the world but is uncommon in North America.

12

N. gonorrhoeae causes

an acute suppurative infection of the genital tract

13

N. gonorrhoeae presents as?

urethritis in men and endocervicitis in women. It is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases.

14

Gonorrhea may involve

the throat, anus, rectum, epididymis, cervix, fallopian tubes, prostate gland, or joints.

15

Septic arthritis due to N. gonorrhoeae

a suppurative inflammation most commonly caused by hematogenous spread, is usually monoarticular, most commonly affecting hips and knees.

16

Primary syphilis presents with what?

chancre.

17

Secondary syphilis

represents systemic dissemination and proliferation of the spirochete, Treponema pallidum.

18

This secondary syphilis stage is characterized pathologically by?

lesions in skin, mucous membranes, lymph nodes, meninges, stomach, and liver.

19

What do the pathological lesions of secondary syphilis show?

a perivascular lymphocytic infiltration and endarteritis obliterans.

20

In most cases of secondary syphilis when does the rash appear?

2 weeks to 3 months after the primary lesion (chancre) heals.

21

Other lesions associated with secondary syphilis include

condylomata lata, follicular syphilis, and nummular syphilis.

22

Chancre is a characteristic lesion of

primary syphilis.

23

Dementia, Gummas, Tabes dorsalis are encountered in patients with

tertiary syphilis.

24

Anthrax

is a necrotizing disease caused by B. anthracis.

25

What does the clinical presentation of anthrax depend on?

the site of inoculation and includes “malignant” pustule, pulmonary anthrax, septicemic anthrax, and gastrointestinal anthrax.

26

What does B. anthracis typically produce?

extensive tissue necrosis at the site of infection, with a mild neutrophilic infiltration.

27

Malignant pustule

is seen in over 95% of all cases of anthrax and represents the cutaneous form of this infectious disease.

28

The person infected with anthrax presents with?

an elevated cutaneous papulae that enlarges and erodes into an ulcer.

29

In an anthrax infection what might local hemorrhagic pustules progress to?

Carbuncles

30

What do cutaneous lesions in an anthrax infection contain?

numerous organisms that release a potent necrotizing toxin.