Ch. 10 Flashcards Preview

aa 466 > Ch. 10 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch. 10 Deck (21):
1

A number of theories of motivation have been developed: need hierarchy, achievement-power affiliation, two-factor, expectancy, and reinforcement.

Need Hierarchy. One of the most popular theories of motivation was proposed by Maslow (1943). [See Slide 10-6]

Existence Relatedness Growth. Alderfer (1972) proposed a more simplistic model of human needs that influence worker behavior, termed the existence relatedness growth (ERG) theory. [See Slide 10-7]

Achievement-Power-Affiliation. In his writing on motivation, McClelland (1985) emphasized needs that are learned and socially acquired as individuals interact with the environment. [See Slide 10-8]

Two-Factor. Herzberg (1966) developed the two-factor theory of work motivation, which focuses on the rewards or outcomes of performance that satisfy needs. [See Slide 10-9]

Expectancy. Managers should develop an understanding of human needs and the variety of organizational means available to satisfy employees’ needs.
The needs approach to motivation, however, does not account adequately for differences among individual employees or explain why people behave in many different ways when accomplishing the same or similar goals.

Reinforcement. Reinforcement theory, which is associated with Skinner (1971), is often called operant conditioning or behavior modification.
Rather than emphasize the concept of a motive or a process of motivation, these theories deal with how the consequences of a past action influence future actions in a cyclical learning process.

Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Motivation. Discussions of motivation often focus on whether the motivation comes from within the individual or from sources external to the individual.

Intrinsic motivation is within the individual and is driven by the interest in, enjoyment of, learning from, and/or satisfaction from the task being done.

Extrinsic motivation are factors outside of the individual that drive behavior; extrinsic motivation occurs when a task is done primarily because of external factors such as pay, coercion, or competition.

2

Need Hierarchy.

One of the most popular theories of motivation was proposed by Maslow (1943).

3

Existence Relatedness Growth.

Alderfer (1972) proposed a more simplistic model of human needs that influence worker behavior, termed the existence relatedness growth (ERG) theory. [See Slide 10-7]

The ERG theory introduced the frustration-regression principle, which suggested that if higher-level growth needs were not met the employee would become frustrated and regress to lower-level relatedness or existence needs.

According to Alderfer, human needs could be grouped into three categories that were not hierarchical in nature:

Existence: basic needs for existence (food, water, shelter, safety)

Relatedness: involvement with family, friends, co-workers, and employers

Growth: desire to be creative, productive, and complete meaningful tasks

4

Achievement-Power-Affiliation.

The achievement-power-affiliation theory holds that all people have three needs:

In his writing on motivation, McClelland (1985) emphasized needs that are learned and socially acquired as individuals interact with the environment. [See Slide 10-8]

A need to achieve. The need for achievement is a desire to do something better or more efficiently than it has been done before.

A need for power. The need for power is basically a concern for influencing people.

A need for affiliation. The need for affiliation is characterized by the desire to be liked by others and to establish or maintain friendly relationships.

5

Two-Factor. Herzberg

(1966) developed the two-factor theory of work motivation, which focuses on the rewards or outcomes of performance that satisfy needs. [See Slide 10-9]
2 factors: motivator and hygiene factors
Based on his research, Herzberg concluded that although employees are dissatisfied by the absence of maintenance factors, the presence of those conditions does not cause motivation.

Maintenance factors are necessary to maintain a minimum level of need satisfaction; in addition, the presence of some job factors can cause high levels of motivation and job satisfaction, but the absence of these factors may not be highly dissatisfying.

Two sets of rewards or outcomes are identified: those related to job satisfaction and those related to job dissatisfaction.

Factors related to satisfaction, called motivators, which are related to the environment or content of the job, include:
Achievement
Recognition
Responsibility
Advancement
The work itself
Potential for growth

Factors related to dissatisfaction, called maintenance or hygiene factors, which are related to the environment or context of the job (these are a major source of motivation), include:
Pay
Supervision
Job security
Working conditions
Organizational policies
Interpersonal relationships on the job

6

Expectancy

Managers should develop an understanding of human needs and the variety of organizational means available to satisfy employees’ needs.
The needs approach to motivation, however, does not account adequately for differences among individual employees or explain why people behave in many different ways when accomplishing the same or similar goals.

7

Reinforcement

Reinforcement theory, which is associated with Skinner (1971), is often called operant conditioning or behavior modification.
Rather than emphasize the concept of a motive or a process of motivation, these theories deal with how the consequences of a past action influence future actions in a cyclical learning process.

8

Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Motivation.

. Discussions of motivation often focus on whether the motivation comes from within the individual or from sources external to the individual.

Intrinsic motivation is within the individual and is driven by the interest in, enjoyment of, learning from, and/or satisfaction from the task being done.

Extrinsic motivation are factors outside of the individual that drive behavior; extrinsic motivation occurs when a task is done primarily because of external factors such as pay, coercion, or competition.

9

One of the most popular theories of motivation was proposed by Maslow (1943).

According to this theory, each need is prepotent or dominant over all higher-level needs until it has been partially or completely satisfied.

A prepotent need is one that has greater influence over other needs.
Also, according to this theory, a satisfied need is no longer a motivator.

A prepotent lower-order need, however, might not need to be satisfied completely before the next higher one becomes potent or dominant; for example, the safety need may not have to be satisfied completely before social needs become motivators.

This theory, frequently referred to as the need hierarchy theory, states that people are motivated by their desire to satisfy specific needs, which are arranged in the following ascending hierarchical order (see above - Figure 10-2 in text):

Physiological—needs of the human body that must be satisfied to sustain life.

Safety—needs concerned with the protection of individuals from physical or psychological harm.

Social—needs for love, affection, belonging.

Esteem—needs relating to feelings of self-respect and self-worth, along with respect and esteem from one’s peers.

Self-actualization—needs related t

10

Expectancy theory

how is this going to bebnefit me now, when will it be beneficiall

explains workers motivation

expectancies- probabilities ranging from zero to one:
Effort performance
- what is the probability that my effort will results in successful performance

performace outcome: will my good performance result in my obtaining the outcome or reward

employees must perceive that the effort is worth it

11

Closely related to motivation is the concept of job satisfaction; while motivation reflects a person’s drive to perform, satisfaction reflects that person’s attitude in a situation.

Satisfaction is largely determined by conditions in the environment and in the situation; motivation is determined by needs and goals.
Job satisfaction refers to the individual’s mind-set about the job, which may be positive or negative.

Job satisfaction also appears to be related to what has been termed Organizational Citizenship Behaviors (OCBs).
These are behaviors that are voluntary and above and beyond the call of duty.

They are not required of organization members; however, they are necessary for organizational efficiencies and include such things as protecting the organization from theft, helping co-workers, making constructive suggestions, and developing one’s skills and abilities.


theory x manager: gets the job done
theory y manager: knows how their decisions may affect a person

12

There are seven bases of power, or potential means of influencing the behavior of others.

**Legitimate power. for example the president of a company. Comes from the formal position held by an individual in an organization; generally, the higher the position, the higher legitimate power tends to be.
A leader high in legitimate power induces compliance from others because the followers believe this person has the right to give directions by virtue of his or her position.



Reward power. Comes from a leader’s ability to reward others.
Examples of formal rewards are increases in pay, promotions, or favorable job assignments.- faculty

Coercive power. Comes from the authority of the leader to punish those who do not comply.
A leader with coercive power can fire, demote, threaten, or give undesirable work assignments to induce compliance from others.

**Expert power. Held by those leaders who are viewed as being competent in their job.
Knowledge gained through education or experience and a demonstration of ability to perform are sources of expert power.- faculty

A leader high in expert power can influence others because of their respect for his or her abilities.

Referent power (sometimes called charisma). Based on identification of followers with a leader.
A leader high in referent power is generally well liked and admired by others; thus, the leader can influence others because of this identification and admiration.

Information power. Based on the leader’s possession of or access to information that others perceive as valuable.
This power influences others either because they need the information or want to be a part of things.- fauclty

Connection power. Based on the leader’s connections with influential or important persons inside or outside the organization.
A leader high in connection power induces compliance from others who aim at gaining the favor or avoiding the disfavor of the influential connection.- faculty- the closes to the students

13

Trait Concepts in Leadership.


Traits are personal characteristics that describe how a person thinks, feels, and/or acts.

competent, listening, understanding, trust, not being afraid to fail, not afraid to apologize,

14

Basic Leadership Styles.

Early studies on leadership identified three basic styles: autocratic, laissez-faire, and democratic; responsibility for decision making is the key factor differentiating these leadership styles.
Generally, the autocratic leader makes most decisions, the laissez-faire leader allows the group to make the decisions, and the democratic leader guides and encourages the group to make decisions.

15


Behavioral Concepts of Leadership.

When research shifted from an emphasis on personality and physical traits to an examination of leadership behavior, the focus was on determining the most effective leadership style.

16

Situational and Contingency Approaches.

Situational and contingency approaches emphasize leadership skills, behavior, and roles thought to be dependent on the situation.
These approaches are based on the hypothesis that behavior of effective leaders in one setting may be substantially different from that in another.

17

Reciprocal Approaches to Leadership.

Reciprocal approaches to leadership focus more on the interactions among leaders and their followers than on characteristics of the leaders themselves. [See Slide 10-17]

18

Behavioral Concepts of Leadership

University of Michigan Leadership Studies. Leadership studies conducted at the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan were designed to characterizes leadership effectiveness.
These studies isolated two major concepts of leadership: employee orientation and production orientation.
Employee-centered leaders were identified by their special emphasis on the human relations part of their job.

Production-oriented leaders emphasized performance and the more technical characteristics of work.

Ohio State Leadership Studies. Beginning in the 1940s, researchers at Ohio State University started a series of in-depth studies on the behavior of leaders in a wide variety of organizations.
These studies were conducted about the same time as those at the University of Michigan and used similar concepts.

Two dimensions of leadership behavior emerged from those studies: consideration and initiating structure.
Consideration indicates behavior that expresses friendship, develops mutual trust and respect, and develops strong interpersonal relationships with subordinates.
Leaders who exhibit consideration are supportive of their employees, use their employees’ ideas, and allow frequent participation in decisions.

Initiating structure indicates behavior that defines work and establishes well-defined communication patterns and clear relationships between the leader and subordinate.
Leaders who initiate structure emphasize goals and deadlines, give employees detailed task assignments, and define performance expectations in specific terms.

19

University of Michigan Leadership Studies.

employee centered leaders,

These studies isolated two major concepts of leadership: employee orientation and production orientation.
Employee-centered leaders were identified by their special emphasis on the human relations part of their job.

Production-oriented leaders emphasized performance and the more technical characteristics of work.

20

Ohio State Leadership Studies.

dimensions: consideration and initaitng structure. developed mututal trust, friendships, - more likely to have p[roductive employees

Beginning in the 1940s, researchers at Ohio State University started a series of in-depth studies on the behavior of leaders in a wide variety of organizations.
These studies were conducted about the same time as those at the University of Michigan and used similar concepts.

Two dimensions of leadership behavior emerged from those studies: consideration and initiating structure.
Consideration indicates behavior that expresses friendship, develops mutual trust and respect, and develops strong interpersonal relationships with subordinates.
Leaders who exhibit consideration are supportive of their employees, use their employees’ ideas, and allow frequent participation in decisions.

Initiating structure indicates behavior that defines work and establishes well-defined communication patterns and clear relationships between the leader and subordinate.
Leaders who initiate structure emphasize goals and deadlines, give employees detailed task assignments, and define performance expectations in specific terms.

21

leadership grip

very coplex

looks at team management, contribute, commit -leadership skills