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1

What are 3 concepts important to the process of management.

Authority, responsibility, and accountability

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authority

Authority is delegated from the top level to lower levels of management and is the right of a manager to direct others and take actions because of his or her position in the organization.

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Responsiblility

Responsibility is the obligation to perform an assigned activity or see that someone else performs it.
Because responsibility is an obligation a person accepts, it cannot be delegated or passed to another; essentially, the obligation remains with the person who accepted the responsibility.

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Accountability

Accountability is the state of being responsible to one’s self, to some organization, or even to the public.
In the systems context, management was described as a process for accomplishment of objectives, implying, therefore, that accountability is an integral aspect of the managerial role.

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The formal authority of a manager gives rise to 3 roles

Interpersonal, information, decisional roles

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interpersonal roles

figurehead leaders liaison

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Managers need three basic skills

– technical, human and conceptual.

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conceptual skills

Conceptual Skill. Conceptual skill is the ability to view the organization as a whole, recognizing how various parts depend on one another and how changes in one part affect other parts. Broad overall picture.

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The five management functions are

planning, organizing, staffing, directing, and controlling

Managers perform these functions in the process of coordinating activities of the subsystems of the organization.

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Dimensions of planning. The four dimensions of planning are:

: repetitiveness, time span, level of management and flexibility.

flexibility is Flexibility. One of the major considerations in planning is the permissible degree of flexibility.
Long-range planning involves decision making that commits resources over an extended period of time.

Rapidly changing technology, competitive and market situations, and political pressures make forecasting extremely difficult.
Rigid planning at early stages involves the risk of inability to cope with changes.


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Level of management.

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A relationship exists between the hierarchy of plans and the level of management involved in the planning effort (See Figure 9-11 in text).
Generally, top managers, who function at the policy-making level of the organization are responsible for broad, comprehensive planning involving goals and objectives.

Middle managers, at the organizational or coordinative level, are responsible for developing policies

First-line (a.k.a. front-line) managers at the technical or operational level are responsible for developing procedures and methods.

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organization
2 kinds

traditional and new organizations, each with different objectives.

The Traditional Organization [See Slide 9-11]

The Innovative Organization

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One of the primary reasons for organizing in the traditional organization is to establish lines of authority, which create order.

The traditional organization frequently is defined in terms of the following:

Organization chart and job descriptions or position guides—pattern of formal relationships and duties.

Differentiation or departmentalization—assignment of various activities or tasks to different units or people of the organization.

Integration—coordination of separate activities or tasks.

Delegation of authority—power, status, and hierarchical relationships within the organization.

Administrative systems—guidance of activities and relationships of people in the organization through planned and formalized policies, procedures, and controls.

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In innovative organizations, employers are challenged to improve the quality of work life and to develop a corporate, or organizational, culture.
Innovative organizations are characterized by several general precepts:

Empowered Decision Making: Employees, not just managers, are involved in decision-making.

Sociability: A sense of belonging to the organization is created for all members.

New bases of management power: A shift has occurred from use of only downward authority to inclusion of upward and lateral lines of authority and input.

Personal consideration: Greater recognition is given to the importance of individual employees, not just the job they perform.

Team-based with group recognition: Formation of teams of employees and/or managers working together to accomplish goals with more emphasis on team rather than individual recognition.

Self-fulfillment: Employee job satisfaction and sense of accomplishment is more valued.

Flat hierarchy: The number of managerial levels has been reduced.

Emphasis on vision and values: Companies are finding it more important to formulate clear visions and values to which employees can commit themselves.

Managers as change agents: Change is viewed as a critical component in organization success, and managers are expected to stimulate and facilitate change.

Technologically savvy: Effective use of all forms of technology and a presence on the Internet are necessary components of organizations.

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Empowered Decision Making:

Employees, not just managers, are involved in decision-making.- organisational structure can get flipped.

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Sociability:

A sense of belonging to the organization is created for all members.

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New bases of management power:

A shift has occurred from use of only downward authority to inclusion of upward and lateral lines of authority and input

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Personal consideration:

Greater recognition is given to the importance of individual employees, not just the job they perform.

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Team-based with group recognition:

Formation of teams of employees and/or managers working together to accomplish goals with more emphasis on team rather than individual recognition.

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Self-fulfillment:

Employee job satisfaction and sense of accomplishment is more valued. not only money, give them purpose

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Flat hierarchy:

The number of managerial levels has been reduced. frontline staff have a greater say

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Emphasis on vision and values: .

Companies are finding it more important to formulate clear visions and values to which employees can commit themselves

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Managers as change agents:

Change is viewed as a critical component in organization success, and managers are expected to stimulate and facilitate change.

managers asking for change

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Technologically savvy:

Effective use of all forms of technology and a presence on the Internet are necessary components of organizations.

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Corporate culture, or organizational culture, is defined as the shared philosophies, values, assumptions, beliefs, expectations, attitudes, and norms that knit an organization together.

Positive cultures have the following qualities in common:

Integrity: Building trust between people in the organization

Bottom-up style of management: Involving employees as part of the team

Having fun: Finding ways both at work and outside of work for fun

Community involvement: Participating in community service programs

Emphasis on physical health and fitness: Practicing a belief that a sound mind goes along with a sound body.

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division of labour 4

Vertical. Vertical division of labor is based on the establishment of lines of authority.
In addition to establishing authority at various levels of the organization, vertical division of labor facilitates communication flow.

Horizontal. A horizontal division of labor groups employees at similar levels in the organization allowing them to work together more easily.
A horizontal structure encourages employees to share ideas across all levels and departments.

Team. A team division of labor involves the entire organization being made up of work groups or teams rather than the more formal organizational structure.
The teams design and do the organization’s work; there is no managerial hierarchy involved.

Matrix. A matrix structure is often used for special projects.
In this structure, experts from a variety of departments are pulled together to work with a project manager on a specified project; when the project is completed, employees return to their areas.

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underlying concepts of organisations

Authority, Responsibility, and Delegation
Authority is defined as the right of a manager to direct others and to take action because of the position held in the organization.

Authority is delegated down the hierarchy of the organization as designated by upper management.

Responsibility is a concept closely related to authority and refers to an obligation for performing an assigned activity.

2. Span of Management Span of management, often referred to as span of control, is concerned with the number of people any one person can supervise effectively. [See Slide 9-17]

Formal versus Acceptance Authority
Formal authority is considered a top-down theory because it traces the flow of authority from the top to the bottom of the organization.
Formal authority is also referred to as positional authority, meaning that authority is derived from the position or office.

Acceptance authority is based on the concept that managers have no effective authority unless and until subordinates are acquiescent.
Although they may have formal authority, this authority is effective only if subordinates accept it.

Authority of competence or expertise is based on technical knowledge and experience.
A command may be accepted, not because of organizational title, but because the employee believes the person giving the command is knowledgeable.

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Span of management, often referred to as span of control, is concerned with the number of people any one person can supervise effectively.
Several factors are involved in determining the proper number:

Organizational policies. Clearly defined policies can reduce the time managers spend making decisions; the more comprehensive the policies, the greater the span of management.

Availability of staff experts. Managers can have increased span if staff experts are available to provide advice and services.

Competence of staff. Well-trained workers can perform their jobs without close supervision, thus freeing competent managers to expand their span of management.

Objective standards. In organizations with objective standards and standardized procedures, workers have a basis by which to gauge their own progress, thus allowing managers to concentrate on exceptions.
As a result, larger spans are possible.

Nature of the work. Less complicated work tends to require less supervision than more complicated work.
Generally, the simpler and more uniform the work, the greater the possible span.

Distribution of workforce. The number of areas where supervised workers are on duty may inhibit severely a manager’s ability to visit all work sites.
The greater the dispersion of workers, the shorter

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Departmentalization, which is the process of grouping jobs according to some logical arrangement, is the most frequently used method for implementing division of labor.

Departments are commonly organized by

Functional. Functional departmentalization occurs when organization units are defined by the nature of the work.
Most organizations have three basic functions: production, sales, and finance.
The primary advantage of such departmentalization is that it allows specialization within functions and provides for efficient use of equipment and other resources.

Product and Service. Under departmentalization by a product or a service, all activities required in producing and marketing them are usually under the direction of a single manager.
Product departmentalization allows workers to identify with the particular product and encourages expansion, improvement, and diversification, although duplication of functions may be a problem.

Geography. Departmentalization by territory is most likely to occur in organizations that maintain physically dispersed and autonomous operations or offices.
Geographic departmentalization permits the use of local personnel and may help create customer goodwill and a responsiveness to local customs.

Customer. Another type of departmentalization is based on division by type of customers served.
This approach to departmentalization permits the wholesaler to serve the specialized needs of both the grocer and the foodservice operator.

Process, equipment and time. Process, equipment, and time are other bases for departmentalization.
Process and equipment are closely related to functional departmentalization; in large foodservice operations, a deep-fat frying section within the production unit would be an example of process/equipment departmentalization.

Time or shift is also a common way of departmentalizing in some organizations; organizations such as hospitals that function around the clock often organize activities on this basis.

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Emerging Management Issues

Social Responsibility
Social responsibility is an organization’s responsibility to society that extends beyond its profit generation.

Globalization
Advances in communication and information technology and ease of foreign travel have resulted in a much more global society; as a result, economic, political, cultural, and environmental events in one part of the world can greatly impact those living in another part of the world.

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politics

for example our praticum funding

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Policy
Politics Art or science of influencing others or holding control.

General guide to organized behavior developed by top-level management.

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Procedures

Chronological sequence of activities; define steps for implementation.

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Quota

A specified amount that can be produced.

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Responsibility


The obligation to perform an assigned activity or see that someone else performs it.

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Rules

Specification of action, stating what must or must not be done.

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Skill

An ability that can be developed and that is manifested in performance

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Social responsibility

An organization’s responsibility to society that extends beyond its profit generation.

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Span of management (span of control)

Number of employees that can be effectively supervised by one manager.

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Informational Roles.

The informational roles of a manager are those of monitor, disseminator, and spokesperson.
As monitor, the manager constantly searches for information to use to become more effective.
The manager queries liaison contacts and subordinates and must be alert to unsolicited information that may result from the network of contacts previously developed.

In the disseminator role, the manager transmits information to subordinates who otherwise would probably have no access to this information.
An important aspect of this role is to make decisions concerning the information needs of staff members.

The spokesperson role of the manager is closely akin to the figurehead role.
In the spokesperson role, the manager transmits information to people inside and outside the organization or unit.

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Decisional Roles.

The decisional roles include those of entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resource allocator, and negotiator.
As entrepreneur, the manager is the voluntary initiator of change.
The entrepreneur role may involve, for example, a decision to change the menu after networking with other restaurateurs or customers.

In the role of disturbance handler, the manager responds to situations that are beyond his or her control.
In this role, the manager must act because the pressures of the situation are too severe to be ignored; for example, a strike looms, or a supplier fails to provide goods or services.

As resource allocator, the manager decides how and to whom the resources of the organization will be distributed.
In authorizing important decisions, the manager must be mindful of the needs of the unit while considering priorities of the overall operation.

In the negotiator role, the manager participates in a process of give-and-take until a satisfactory compromise is reached.
Managers have this responsibility because only they have the requisite information and authority to develop complex contracts with suppliers or less formal negotiations within the organization.