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Human resources

- the people an organization employs to carry out various jobs, tasks, and functions in exchange for wages, salaries, and other rewards.


Human Resource Management

- A comprehensive set of managerial activities and tasks concerned with developing and maintaining a qualified workforce - human resources – in ways at contribute to organizational effectiveness.


Four Types of workers predominate in dietetics practice

1. Professionals-
3. Skilled and
4. Unskilled (laundry, dishroom, dont need a certificate)


full and partial employment status

Full time: An individual who is designated to work a certain number of hours per week tht is considered full time by the employer (typically 37 ½ hours/week)
In some setting -40hours per week is considered full time, i.e 8 hours/ day x 5 days/week

Part Time: Works a predetermined number of hours per week
General a number that is less than full time
for example guaranteed 20 hours per week

Casual- not guaranteed a predetermined # of hours per week- need them to cover sick or holidays days

Contract- may have a project- for example a call line

Temporary: if planning a special function


Human resources planning is

is the process of anticipating and making provision for the movement of people into, within, and out of an organization.
A strategic plan must be developed, followed by forecasting future employee needs.
Finally, a supply and demand analysis is required.


Job analysis

the process of obtaining information about jobs by determining the duties and tasks or activities of those jobs.

Detailed description of the job to be carried out on a daily basis. For a breakfast cook, it would include statement such as:
5:30 am Begin shift. Preheat oven and grill
5:35 am Pick up production schedule from
supervisor’s office
5:40 am Assemble ingredients for breakfast
5:50 am Start breakfast preparation
6:25 am Deliver hot food to patient trayline
6:55 am Deliver hot food to cafeteria line…
Useful for training new employees, when orienting a new manager on what each staff does, cross training of staff

Job analysis, ensures that the individual who is doing the job knows what is expected of them.
It is not required for all positions, some positions are so variable and flexible that it would be impossible to write an accurate job analysis
In some case a written job analysis would limit the employee. For example, if the position is exempt from designated hours and variable taks it may not be productive to do a job analyisi
Good examples, are managerial and professional positions
Generally positions that are more routine tasks makes it easier to do a job analysis


Job Description

3 sections

The job description [See Slide 12-7 for example] lists the tasks, duties, and responsibilities of a job, the job’s working conditions, and the tools, materials, and equipment used to perform it.

Most job descriptions include at least three sections: job title, identification, and duties; if job specifications are not separate, they are usually placed at the end of the job description.

Job Title. Selection of a job title is important to employees because it gives them status and indicates their level in the organization.
The title may be used to indicate, to a limited extent, the degree of authority the job possesses.

Job Identification. The job identification section of a job description usually follows the job title.
It includes such information as the departmental location of the job, the person to whom the jobholder reports, and often the number of employees in the department and the SOC code number.

Job Duties. Statements covering job duties are usually arranged in their order of importance.
These statements should indicate the weight or value of each duty generally measured by the percentage of time devoted to it.

Qualifications. This qualifications section of a job description lists the knowledge and skills required for someone to successfully perform the position.
Physical conditions such as amount of standing and lifting also are included in this section.


know the different components of the job description

job title

job identification

job duties



recruiting from in

build rapport with them awhen asking them instead hiring from outside
people see it as a set up

but can get fresh ideas when looking outside

expensive to bring people for the interviews, more training, and have to make sure they fit,


application and screening

why employee testing is important

first time you are seeing them - make them notice you and stand out

background and reference check is after you screen them

short list at the application - only check references if serious


Application and Screening.

. In organizations with a human resources department, the application and initial screening steps will be conducted by that department.
The application form is considered a legal document and should be completed by the applicant.
Lying or misrepresenting information on the application form may be grounds for termination.


Employment Testing.

Pre-employment testing is done in many organizations.
Standardized and customized tests have been developed to assess a candidate’s abilities, personality, knowledge, aptitude, and interests.

Any pre-employment test should relate to the position for which the candidate is being considered and should not unfairly discriminate against protected minorities.



The employment interview has been the most widely used and probably the most important step in the selection process.
The interview may be conducted by one person or a group of persons in the organization.
Some serious doubts have been raised about the validity of the interview as a selection method because of differences between interviewers. [See also Slide 12-14]


Interviews can be either structured or unstructured.

In the structured interview, the interviewer asks specific questions of all interviewees.
The interviewer knows in advance the questions that are to be asked and merely proceeds down the list of questions while recording the responses.

This interview technique gives a common body of data on all interviewees, allows for systematic coverage of all information deemed necessary for all applicants, and provides a means for minimizing the personal biases and prejudices of the interviewer.
Structured interviews are frequently used in interviews for lower-level jobs; often structured interviews include questions focused on a candidate’s behavior.
Situational interview questions ask the candidate what behaviors he/she would display in a hypothetical situation (e.g., If you saw another employee stealing food, what would you do?).


Personnel Actions.

The performance appraisal process provides the basis for various types of personnel actions. [See Slide 12-19]
if they are doing courses on their own


Performance Appraisal.

Performance refers to the degree of accomplishment of the tasks that make up an individual’s job.
Often confused with effort, performance is measured in terms of results.

Performance appraisals, the assessment of an employee’s performance during a specified period of time, take place in every organization, although they are not always formal. [See also Slides 12-16 to 12-18]


Training and Development. Training and development of employees is and must be the responsibility of all managers.

The term training is frequently used to refer to the teaching of technical skills to employees, and management development refers to programs designed to improve the technical, human, and conceptual skills of managers.
Many new employees have the knowledge, skills, and abilities for their job, but others might need extensive training before they can perform effectively.

The primary purpose of a training program is to help the organization meet its goals.
Equally important, however, is helping trainees meet their personal goals.

On-the-job training methods involve employees learning how to do a particular job while actually doing the job and include job rotation, internships, and apprenticeships.
In job rotation, employees are assigned to work on a series of jobs over a period of time, thereby permitting them to learn a variety of skills.

Off-the-job training takes place outside the workplace.
Methods used in off-the-job training range from laboratory experiences that simulate actual working conditions to other types of participative experiences, such as case studies or role playing, and to classroom activities such as seminars, lectures, and films.


Compensation Management.

. Employee compensation represents a substantial part of the operating costs of an organization.
Good working conditions, sound employment practices, and compensation appropriate for an individual’s qualifications and the responsibilities of a job are essential for recruitment and retention of capable employees. [See Slides 12-20 to 12-21]


Performance appraisals

what are teh different ways of doing it

are the assessment of an employee’s performance during a specified period of time.

Objectives. Performance appraisals are used primarily for compensation decisions.
The primary objectives of a performance appraisal program are:
To provide employees with the opportunity to discuss their performance with the supervisor or manager.

To identify strengths and weaknesses of the employee’s performance.

To suggest ways the employee can meet performance standards, if they have not been met.

To assist the employee in setting objectives and personal development plans.

To provide a basis for future job assignments and salary recommendations.

Participants. Input for performance appraisals can come from many sources.
Managers or supervisors usually are responsible for appraising employees whose work they oversee in their units.

Employees may provide input on performance of peers or managers.

Methods. Commonly used performance appraisal methods include the following: checklist, rating scale, critical incident, management by objectives, and 360-degree feedback. [See Slide 12-18]

Appraisal Interviews. The appraisal interview provides the manager with the opportunity to discuss an employee’s performance and explore areas of improvement.
Also, employees should have the opportunity to discuss their concerns and problems in the job situation.

Because the purpose of the interview is to make plans for improvement, the manager should focus on the future rather than the past.


Changes in Job Placement

The performance appraisal process provides the basis for various types of personnel actions.
If deficiencies in employee performance are noted, plans for improvement should be developed or appropriate disciplinary actions should be used.

Changes in job placement may be suggested during evaluation and may include promotions, demotions, transfers, or even separations such as those by dismissal, resignation, or retirement.
Leaves with or without pay are other personnel actions for which a manager must plan to maintain an adequate workforce.



. A promotion is a change of assignment to a job at a higher level in the organization.

The new job generally provides higher pay and status and requires more skill and responsibility.

Advancement can serve as an incentive for improved performance for employees at all levels of the organization.

Succession planning involves planning for qualified individuals to be available to assume management positions as they become available.



. A demotion consists of a change in job assignment to a lower organizational level in a job involving less skill, responsibility, status, and pay.
Employees may be demoted because of reduction in positions of the type they are holding or because of reorganization.

Demotion may also be used as a disciplinary action for unsatisfactory performance or for failure to comply with policies, rules, or standards in the organization.

not always a bad things- some people want it like wanting to go to part time hours



. Transfer involves moving an employee to another job at approximately the same level in the organization with basically the same pay, performance requirements, and status.
A transfer may require an employee to change the work group, workplace, work shift, or organizational unit, or even move to another geographic area.

A transfer can result from an organizational decision or an employee request.



A separation involves either voluntary or involuntary termination of an employee.
In instances of voluntary termination or employee resignations, many organizations attempt to determine why employees are leaving by asking them to complete a questionnaire or by conducting an exit interview.



Discrimination, in a legal sense, is the prejudicial or unfair treatment of individuals or groups based on certain characteristics.
Discrimination based on age, gender, race, color, religion, national origin, physical or mental disability, or military service obligation is illegal in the workplace.

Three exceptions to discrimination are: bona fide occupational qualifications (BFOQ), seniority and merit systems, and testing and education requirements.
A bona fide occupational qualification is a quality or attribute that is protected under discrimination laws but which employers may specify as a job qualification.

ability, disability, gender, age



. The EEOC has declared sexual harassment to be a form of gender discrimination and thus in violation of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
The EEOC defines sexual harassment as “unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature that submission to or rejection of this conduct explicitly or implicitly affects an individual’s employment, unreasonably interferes with an individual’s work performance or creates an intimidating, hostile or offensive work environment.”



. In 1986, Congress passed the Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) to control unauthorized immigration by making it unlawful for a person or organization to recruit or hire persons not legally eligible for employment in the United States.
Employers must comply with the law by verifying and maintaining records on the legal rights of applicants to work in the United States.

IRCA requires employers to complete an I-9 form for each employee to verify the worker’s identity and eligibility to work in the United States.



. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is comprehensive legislation that created new rights and extended existing rights for the more than 43 million Americans with disabilities; it also protected disabled Americans who are not covered under existing laws.
The purpose of the act is to:
Provide a national mandate to eliminate discrimination against individuals with disabilities.
Provide consistent enforceable standards for those with disabilities.
Ensure that the federal government plays a central role in enforcing the standards.
Invoke congressional authority to address the major areas of discrimination faced by the disabled.


plan for an inclusive culture

everyone has an oopportunity to learn, everyone graded fair, everyone belongs



determining the needs of the food service operation- the needs could be clinical- we now have a clinical unit that we need to account for- do we need a half, time, full time or merged into another position

Staffing concerns the determination of the appropriate number of employees needed by the operation for the work that must be accomplished.

Job analyses and work production standards provide the basis for determining staffing needs.
Staffing is the most important managerial function along with planning, organizing, directing and controlling. The operations of these four functions depend upon the manpower which is available through staffing function
It is a continuous activity- function continues throughout the life of an organization due to the transfers and promotions that take place
Requires efficient management of personnel- Human resources can be efficiently managed by a system or proper procedure, that is, recruitment, selection, Requires placement, training and development, providing remuneration.
Staffing helps place the right people at the right job. It can be done effectively through proper recruitment procedures and then finally selecting the most suitable candidate as per the job requirements.
All managers are responsible for the staffing function- top, middle supervisors- may have different responsibilities
Everyone must act responsibly in order to ensure the financial health of the organization.
How does one know how many staff you need on your position control in order to meet the needs of the department (not too many, and not too few)? That is a $100,000 question



Scheduling means having the correct number of workers on duty, as determined by staffing needs.
Scheduling involves assignments of employees to specific working hours and workdays.


FTE (Full-time equivalent)

The first step to understanding the staffing budget is to understand the calculation for an FTE.

An FTE is an employee, or a combination of employees, who work full time, which would be 80 (or 75 hours) per 14-day ( bi-weekly) pay period or for a total of 2,080 (1750) hours per year.

You can calculate how much any one person consumes of your budgeted FTE allocation by using the following equation

Hours per day the employee works × Days per pay period the employee works / 80 (37 ½) hours (number of hours an FTE works in a 2-week pay period)


Three types of work schedules—master

The master schedule shows days on and off duty and vacations.

The shift schedule will indicate the position and hours worked and may indicate the number of days worked per week; it also lists relief assignments for positions when regular workers are off.

The production schedule identifies tasks to be completed for the production of a meal.


Control of Overtime.

Uncontrolled overtime is a key factor in driving up labor costs.
In some instances, employees may need to work beyond their normal hours; in other cases, however, supervisors may use overtime as a substitute for proper scheduling and planning.
Moreover, employees may try to create opportunities for overtime because of the time-and-a-half wage rate they may receive.

With proper staffing and realistic work schedules, overtime becomes necessary only in emergencies.