Ch 10: Acids and Bases Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 10: Acids and Bases Deck (33):
1

Arrhenius acids

dissociate to produce excess hydrogen ions in soln

2

Arrhenius bases

dissociate to produce excess hydroxide ions in soln

3

Bronsted-Lowry acids

species that can donate hydrogen ions

4

Bronsted-Lowry bases

electron-pair donors

5

all ____ are Bronsted-Lowry acids and bases, and all Bronsted-Lowry acids and bases are ____ but the reverse of this is not true

Arrhenius acids and bases

Lewis acids and bases

6

Lewis acids are

electron-pair acceptors

7

Lewis bases are

electron-pair donors

8

amphoteric

behave as acid or base

9

amphiprotic species are

amphoteric species that specifically can behave as Bronsted-Lowry acids and bases

ex: water

10

conjugate species of polyvalent acids and bases can behave as

amphoteric and amphiprotic species

11

water dissociation constant, Kw

10^-14 at 298K
like other equilibrium constants, only affected by temperature

12

pH and pOH =

14 at 298K

13

strong acids and bases

complete dissociate

14

weak acids and bases

do not completely dissociate and have dissociation constants (Ka and Kb)

15

Neutralization reactions

form salts and sometimes water

16

equivalent is defined as

one mole of the species of interest

17

in acid-base chemistry, normality is

the concentration of acid or base equivalents in solution

18

polyvalent acids and bases

those that can donate or accept multiple electrons. The normality of a solution containing a polyvalent species is the molarity of the acid or base times the number of protons it can donate or accept

19

titrations

used to determine the concentration of a known reactant in the solution

20

titrant

known concentration and is added slowly to the titrand to reach the equivalence point

21

titrand

unknown concentration but a known volume

22

half-equivalence point

midpoint of the buffering region, which half of the titrant has been protonated (or deprotonated); thus [HA] = [A-] and a buffer is formed

23

equivalence point

indicated by the steepest slope in a titration curve; it is reached when the number of acid equivalents in the original solution equals the number of base equivalents added, or vice-versa

24

strong acid and strong base titrations have equivalence points at

pH = 7

25

weak acid and strong base titrations have equivalence points at

ph > 7

26

strong acid and weak base titrations have equivalence points at

ph

27

weak acid and weak base titrations can have equivalence points

above or below 7, depending on the relative strength of the acid or base

28

indicators are

weak acids or bases that display different colors in their protonated and deprotonated forms

indicator chosen for a titration should have a pKa close to the pH of the expected equivalency point

29

endpoint of a titration

is when the indicator reaches its final color

30

multiple buffering regions and equivalence points are

observed in polyvalent acid and base titrations

31

buffer solutions

consist of a mixture of a weak acid and its conjugate salt or a weak base and its conjugate salt; they resist large fluctuations in pH

32

buffering capacity

refers to the ability of a buffer to resist changes in pH; maximizing buffering capacity is seen within 1 pH point of the pKa of the acid in the buffer solution

33

Henderson-Hasselbach equation

quantifies the relationship between pH and pKa for weak acids and between pOH and pKb for weak bases; when a solution is optimally buffered pH = pKa and pOH = pKb