Ch 9: Solutions Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 9: Solutions Deck (28):
1

solutions

homogeneous mixtures composed of two or more substances

combine to form a single phase, generally liquid

2

____ particles surround ____ particles via electrostatic interactions in a process called solvation or dissolution

solvent
solute

3

aqueous solutions are more important for the MCAT, solvation in water is called

hydration

4

most dissolutions are _____ but gas is _____

endothermic

exothermic

5

solubility

maximum amount of a solute that can be dissolved in a given solvent at a given temperature; often expressed as molar solubility which is the molarity of the solute at saturation

6

complex ions or coordination compounds are

composed of metallic ions bound to various neutral compounds and anions, referred to as ligands

7

formation of complex ions increases the _____ of otherwise insoluble ions (opposite of the ____ )

solubility
common ion effect

8

process of forming a complex ion involves e- pair donors and e- pair acceptors such as those seen in

coordinate covalent bonding

9

percent concentration by mass

mass solute / mass solution x 100

used for aq solutions and solid-in-solid solutions

10

mole fraction

moles solute/ total moles

used for vapor pressure depression and partial pressure of gases in a system

11

molarity

moles solute / liters of soln

used for rate laws, law of mass action, osmotic pressure, , pH and pOH, Nernst equation

12

molality

moles solute / kg of solvent

used for boiling point elevation and freezing point depression

13

normality

number of equivalents / liters of solution

molarity of the species of interest and is used for acid-base and oxidation-reduction reactions

14

solubility product constant Ksp

equilibrium constant for a dissolution reaction

15

comparison of the ion product (IP) to Ksp determines

the level of saturation and behavior of the solution

16

IP

solution is unsaturated, if more solute were added it will dissolve

17

IP = Ksp

solution is saturated (at equilibrium) and there will be no change in the concentrations

18

IP > Ksp

solution is supersaturated, and a precipitate will form

19

formation of a complex ion in solution greatly increases

solubility

20

formation or stability constant (Kf)

equilibrium constant for complex formation. its value is much greater than Ksp usually

21

formation of complex ions inc solubility of other salts containing same ions bc it uses products of those dissolution reactions, shifting equilib to the

right, opposite of the common ion effect

22

common ion effect

dec solubility of a compound in a solution that already contains one of the ions in the compound; presence of that ion in soln shifts the dissolution reaction to the left, decreasing its dissociation

23

colligative properties

physical properties of solutions that depend on the conc of dissolved particles but not on their chemical identity

24

vapor pressure depression follows

Raoult's Law

25

Raoult's Law

presence of other solutes dec the evaporation rate of a solvent without affecting its condensation rate, thus decreasing its vapor pressure

vapor pressure depression also explains boiling point elevation- as the vapor pressure decreases the temperature (energy) required to boil the liquid must be raised

26

osmotic pressure

primarily dependent on the molarity of a solution

27

freezing point depression and boiling point elevation

shifts in the phase equilibria dependent on the molality of the solution

28

for solutes that dissociate, the van't Hoff factor (i) is

used in freezing point depression, boiling point elevation, and osmotic pressure calculations