Ch 8: The Gas Phase Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 8: The Gas Phase Deck (21):
1

gas systems are described by

temperature, pressure, volume, and number of moles (n)

2

pressure equiv include 1 atm =

760 mmHg
760 torr
101.325 kPa

3

simple mercury barometer

measures incident (usually atmospheric) pressure.

as pressure increases, more mercury is forced into the column, increasing its height

as pressure decreases, mercury flows out of the column under its own weight, decreasing its height

4

standard temperature and pressure for ideal gases (STP)

273 K (0C) and 1 atm

5

at STP one mole of an ideal gas occupies

22.4 L

6

ideal gas law

describes the relationship between four variables of the gas state for an ideal gas

7

Avogadro's principle

special case of the ideal gas law for which the pressure and temperature are held constant; shows direct relationship between the number of moles of gas and volume

8

Boyle's Law

special case of the ideal gas law for which temperature and number of moles are held constant; it shows a direct relationship between the number of moles of gas and volume

9

Charles's Law

special case of ideal gas law for which pressure and number of moles are held constant; shows direct relationship between temperature and volume

10

Gay-Lussac's Law

special case of the ideal gas law for which volume and number of moles are held constant; it shows direct relationship between temperature and pressure

11

combined gas law

combo of boyle, charles, gay-lussac

shows inverse relationship btwn pressure and volume along with direct relationships btwn pressure and volume with temperature

12

Dalton's Law of partial pressures

states that individual gas components of a mixture of gases will exert individual pressures in proportion to their MOLE FRACTIONS

total pressure of a mixture of gases to the sum of the partial pressures of the component gases

13

Henry's Law

amount of gas dissolved in solution is directly proportional to the partial pressure of that gas at the surface of a solution

14

kinetic molecular theory

attempt to explain the behavior of gas particles; makes a number of assumptions about the gas particles like...

negligible volume
do no have intermolecular attractions or repulsions
undergo random collisions with each other and the walls of the container
collisions are elastic
average kinetic energy is directly prop to temp

15

Graham's Law

behavior of gas diffusion or effusion, stating that gases with lower molar masses will diffuse or effuse faster then gases with higher molecular masses at same temperature

16

diffusion

spreading out of particles from high to low concentrations

17

effusion

movement of gas from one compartment to another through a small opening under pressure

18

real gases deviate from ideal behavior under __ (low volume) and ____ conditions

high pressure
low temperatures

19

real gases will occupy less volume than ideal in _______ because the particles have intermolecular attractions

moderate high pressure, low volume, or low temp

20

real gases will occupy more volume than ideal in ____ bc particles occupy space

extremely high pressure, low volume, or low temp


corrected with van der waals equation of state with a and b

21

van der waals equation of state a is ____ b is ____

intermolecular attractions
molecular volume