ch 10 - Acids and Bases Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in ch 10 - Acids and Bases Deck (50)
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1

Arrhenius acid

dissociates to form an excess of H+ in solution

2

Arrhenius base

dissociates to form an excess of OH- in solution

3

Bronsted-Lowry acid

species that donates a hydrogen ion (H+)

4

Bronsted-Lowry base

species that accepts hydrogen ion (H+)

5

conjugate acid-base pairs

Bronsted-Lowry acids and bases occur in pairs becaues the definitions require transfer of a proton from the acid to the base

6

Lewis acid

an electron pair acceptor

7

Lewis base

an electron pair donor

8

other terms for Lewis acid-base chemistry

coordinate covalent bond formation; complex ion formation; nucleophile-electrophile interactions

9

amphoteric

species that reacts like an acid in a base environment and like a base in an acidic environment

10

amphprotic

a species that can either gain or lose a proton (Bronsted-Lowry)

11

anion acid nomenclature

acids formed from anions with names that end in -ide have the prefix hydro- and the ending -ic: F- (fluoride) = HF (Hydrofluoric acid); Cl- (Chloride) = HCl (hydrochloric acid); Br- (bromide) = HBr (hydrobromic acid)

12

naming oxyacids

oxyacids are acids formed from oxyanions; if anion ends in -ite (less oxygen), acid will end with -ous acid; if it ends in -ate (more oxygen), acid will end with -ic acid and prefixes of names are retained

13

autoionization

water reacted with itself: H20 (l) + H20 (l) ->

14

water dissociation constant (K sub w)

Kw = [H3O+][OH-] = 10^-14 at 25 degrees C (298 K); at temps above this, Kw will increase as a result of the endothermic nature of the autoionization reaction

15

p scale

negative logarithm of the number of items: pH and pOH are prototypical examples

16

pH

-log[H+] = log (1/[H+])

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pOH

-log[OH-] = log (1/[OH-]

18

pH and pOH for aqueous solutions at 298K

pH + pOH = 14; water at equilibrium and 25 degrees C has a concentration of hydroxide ions (10^-7) = to concentration of hydrogen ions: pH of 7 and pOH of 7

19

how to multiply logs

log (xy) = log x + log y

20

shortcut to determine p scale values

if the nonlog value is written in proper scientific notation, it will be in the form n x 10^-m where n = number between 1 and 10: -log(n x 10^-m) = -log (n) - log(10^-m) = m - log(n); n will equal number between 1 and 10 which means log n will be a number between 0 and 1 (closer to 1 = closer to 0; closer to 10 = closer to 1) so p value = about m - 0.n where 0.n represents sliding the decimal point of n one position to the left

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strong acids and bases

species that completely dissociate into their component ions in aqueous solutions

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common strong acids to know

HCl (hydrochloric acid); HBr (hydrobromic acid); HI (hydroiodic acid); H2SO4 (sulfuric acid); HNO3 (nitric acid); HClO4 (perchloric acid)

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common strong bases to know

NaOH (sodium hydroxide); KOH (potassium hydroxide); other soluble hydroxides of Group IA metals

24

weak monoprotic acid dissociation in water

HA (aq) + H2O (l) ->

25

acid dissociation constant (Ka) of weak acids

K sub a = ([H3O+][A-])/[HA]; the smaller Ka is the weaker the acid and the less it will dissociate; water is not included; weak acid Ka less than 1.0

26

base dissociation constant of weak base (Kb)

K sub b = ([B+][OH-])/[BOH] from equation BOH (aq) ->

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conjugate acid

acid formed from a base gaining a proton

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conjugate base

base formed from an acid losing a proton

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products of strong acid + strong base reaction

salt and water; neutral when present in equimolar amounts in reactants

30

product of reaction between strong acid and weak base

forms a salt but often no water because weak bases often are not hydroxides; cation of the salt is a weak acid and will react with water solvent reforming some of the weak base through hydrolysis; pH below 7