ch 3 - Bonding and Chemical Interactions Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in ch 3 - Bonding and Chemical Interactions Deck (40)
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exceptions to octet rule

hydrogen can only have two valence electrons achieving the configuration of helium; lithium and beryllium bond to attain two and four valence electrons respectively; boron bonds to attain six electrons; and all elements in period 3 and greater which can expand the valence shell to include more than eight electrons by incorporating d-orbitals


Incomplete octet

hydrogen, helium, lithium, beryllium, and boron


expanded octet

any element in period 3 and greater


odd numbers of electrons

any molecule with an odd number of valence electrons cannot distribute those electrons to give eight to each atom


ionic bonding

one or more electrons from an atom with low ionization energy, typically a metal, are transferred to an atom with a high electron affinity, typically, a nonmetal; resulting electrostatic attraction between opposite charges holds the ions together; form crystal lattices; high melting and boiling points, dissolve in water and other polar solvents, good conductors of electricity in molten or aqueous state


covalent bonding

an electron pair is shared between two atoms, typically nonmetals, that have relatively similar values of electronegativity. the degree to which the pair of electrons is shared equally or unequally between the two atoms determines the degree of polarity in the covalent bond - if equal, nonpolar; unequal, polar; consist of individually bonded molecules


coordinate covalent

if both of the shared electrons are contributed by only one of the two atoms



atom in ionic bonding that loses an electron



atom in ionic bonding that gains an electron


bond order of covalent bonds

number of shared electron pairs between two atoms (single, double, or triple covalent bonds have bond orders of one, two, or three respectively)


bond length of covalent bonds

the average distance between the two nuclei of atoms in a bond; as number of shared electron pairs increases, the two atoms are pulled closer together, resulting in a decrease in bond length; thus a triple bond is shorter than a double which is shorter than a single


Bond energy of covalent bonds

the energy required to break a bond by separating its components into their isolated, gaseous atomic states; the greater the number of pairs of electrons shared between atomic nuclei, the more energy is required to break the bonds holding atoms together which means greater bond energy (with triple bond having the greatest)


Polarity of covalent bonds

occurs when two atoms have a relative difference in electronegativities (between 0.5 and 1.7). higher electronegativity atoms get the larger share of the electron density; polar bond creates a dipole, with the positive end of the dipole at the less electronegative atom and the negative a the more electronegative atom


nonpolar covalent bonding

no separation of charge across the bond; only bonds between atoms of the same element will have exactly the same electronegativity and exhibit a purely equal distribution of electrons; also occurs with nearly identical electronegativities but not perfectly. The seven common diatomic molecules are H2, N2, O2, F2, Cl2, Br, and I2; any bond with a difference in electronegativity of less than 0.5 is generally considered nonpolar


dipole moment equation

p = qd, where p is the dipole moment, q is the magnitude of the charge, d is the displacement vector separating the two partial charges; measured in Debye units (coulomb-meters)


bonding electrons

electrons involved in a covalent bond that are in the valence shell


nonbonding electrons

electrons in the valence shell that are not involved in covalent bonds


Lewis structure system

system of notation developed to keep track of the bonded and nonbonded electron pairs; the number of valence electrons attributed to a particular atom in the Lewis structure of a molecule is not necessarily the same as the number of valence electrons in the neutral atom


formal charge

difference between neutral atom number of electrons and number of electrons attributed to atom of a molecule by Lewis structure system; in instance of more than one arrangement of electron pairs for a molecule, one can assess the likelihood of each arrangement by checking these on the atoms; the one that minimizes the number and magnitude is usually the most stable arrangement of the compound


equation for formal charge

formal charge= V - N sub nonbonding - 1/2N sub bonding; where V is the normal number of electrons in the atom's valence shell, N sub nonbonding is the number of nonbonding electrons in the atoms valence shell, N sub bonding is the number of bonding electrons (double the number of bonds because each bond has two electrons)


difference between formal charge and oxidation number

formal charge underestimates effect of electronegativity differences, whereas oxidation numbers overestimate its effect, assuming that the more electronegative atom has 100% share of the bonding electron pair


resonance structures

two or more Lewis structures that demonstrate the same arrangement of atoms but that differ in the specific placement of electrons


resonance hybrid

the nature of the bonds within the actual compound of different resonance structures is a hybrid; this is the actual structure of the compound; the more stable the structure of one resonance structure the more it contributes to the resonance hybrid


rules for determining stability via formal charges

Lewis structure with small/no formal charges is preferred over that with large ones; one with less separation bt opposite charges is preferred over one with large separation of opposite charges; one in which negative formal charges are placed on more electronegative atoms is more stable than one in which the negative formal charges are placed on less electronegative atoms


valence shell electron pair repulsion theory (VSEPR)

uses Lewis dot structures to predict the molecular geometry of covalently bonded molecules; states that the three-dimensional arrangement of atoms surrounding the central atom is determined by the repulsions between bonding and nonbonding electron pairs in the valence shell of the central atom


steps to predict the geometrical structure of a molecule using the VSEPR theory

-draw Lewis dot structure; -count total number of bonding and nonbonding electron pairs in valence shell of central atom; -position electron pairs around central atom so they are as far apart as possible


geometry and angles of pairs in VSEPR theory

2 regions of electron density: linear with 180 degrees between electron pairs; 3 regions: trigonal planar with 120 degrees between; 4 regions: tetrahedral with 109.5 degrees between; 5 regions: trigonal bipyramidal with 90, 120, and 180 degrees between; 6 regions: octahedral with 90, and 180 degrees between


electronic geometry

describes the spatial arrangement of all pairs of electrons around the central atom, including both the bonding and the lone pairs; molecules with certain number of electron pairs (whether bonded or not) around them have the same electronic geometry as each other


molecular geometry

describes the spatial arrangement of only the bonding pairs of electrons


ideal bond angle

associated with electronic geometry; if all electron pairs (bonded or not) exerted same force and created equal angles to each other