CH 10 Cell Form and Function Reading Guide Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in CH 10 Cell Form and Function Reading Guide Deck (66):
1

Define organ

Two or moser tissues working together to perform a function

2

What are the four basic tissue types

Epithelial, connective, nervous and muscle

3

What tissue type make up the heart

Muscle tissue to constrict, nerve tissue to conduct electrical impulses

4

What are the two main tissue layers of the skin? What aRe the main cell types in each?

Epidermis and dermis epidermis is made up of keratinocytes and melanocytes Dermis is made up of connective tissue main cells being fibroblasts

5

What structure separates the epidermis from the dermis?

The basal lamina

6

What are the main differences between the dermis and epidermis?

Epidermis made up of epithelial tissue, serves as water resistant and protective barrierDermis made up of connective tissue, has several nerve, sweat glands, veins and arteries

7

Why cytoskeletal types are universal among all eukaryotic cells?

Microtubules and micro filaments animal cells also have intermediate filaments

8

What do all three cytoskeletal types have in common?

Long chains made up of protein sub units

9

How are microtubules and micro filaments similar?

Both formed of circular monomers where microtubules are form by tube of Tubulin dimer

10

How are micro filament and intermediate filaments similar in structure?

Longer interwoven chains

11

What do centre some have to do with microtubules and micro filaments?

Organize the arrangement of the microtubules and micro filaments

12

Where are micro filaments located within the cell and what is there main function?

Located in the area just beneath the cell membrane. Used to provide structural support

13

Why are micro villi useful for the function of intestinal epithelial cells?

Good at absorption due to there large surface area

14

Hoe does micro filament enable the structure of micro villi?

Provide rigid column structure down the Center of the micro villi

15

What subunits make up the microtubules fibre?

Alpha and beta Tubulin

16

How does the centrosome relate to microtubules?

It is the organizing centres that arrange the microtubules Also form spindle apparatus that separates replicated chromosomes during cell division

17

How are microtubules involved in transport and movement?

They can be found in arrangements of cilia and flagella

18

Define cilia?

Hair like microtubules that cover the exterior of the cell

19

Define flagella

Tail like microtubules that whip to propel the cell

20

What is an exampl of a human cell that have cilia or flagella?

Cilia: found in the lungs to push mucus outFlagella: sperm cells used to swim

21

What is the role of microtubules during mitotic cell division?

Separates replicated chromosomes

22

What are the subunits that make up microfilaments?

Actin monomers

23

Where in the cell are microfilaments most likely to be found?

Are locate just beneath the cell membrane

24

How do microfilaments provide structural support for micro villi?

Microfilaments make up the micro villi Longer bundles form bands that extend the circumference of the cell

25

How are intermediate filaments different from microfilaments and microtubules?

There diameter is intermediate to microtubules and microfilamentsLamins can be found inside the nucleus and provide support for the nuclear envelop

26

What are four types of intermediate subunits?

In epithelial cells these are keratinIn fibroblasts they're VimentinsNeurofilaments in neutronsLamins in cell nucleus

27

What is the intermediate filament associated with the epithelial cells of the epidermis?

Keratins Used to protect underlying tissue

28

Where else in the body besides the epidermis can keratin intermediate filaments be found?

Lining of the intestine

29

What's the sub cellular localization of intermediate filaments?

Surrounding and within the nucleus

30

Define dynamic instability

Microtubules undergo a random cycles of rapid shrinkage and slower growth

31

What is the + and - end of the micro tubules and microfilaments?

The + end is the fast growing end the - end is slow growing

32

Do subunits only add and subtract from their respective ends?

Yes + adds and - subtracts

33

Why is it useful to the cell that microtubules and microfilaments are in a constant state of growth and shrinking?

Allows for rapid growth which becomes important in cell division

34

What are the three type of movement a cell can do?

Relocation, change shape, movement of molecules from outside to inside the cell and around the inside of the cell

35

Do intermediate filaments have motor proteins?

No

36

Define a motor protein

Cause muscle contraction of actin within microfilaments inside muscle cell

37

What's the fuel that drive motor protein movement and where is the majority of this fuel produced in the cell?

ATP found in myosin

38

Which motor protein associates with microfilaments and does this protein have directional movement?

Myosin yes has a shortening movement

39

How are myosin and kinesin different?

Myosin binds to microfilaments and kinesin binds to microtubules

40

Which end to kinesins and dyenins go to?

Kinesins go to the + Dyenins to the -

41

How are cilia different from micro villi?

Cilia are made up microtubules cores while micro villi structure is supported by microfilaments

42

Give an example of a crawling cell?

White blood cell chasing down foreign bacteria

43

What type of cytoskeletal component is important for cell crawling?

Microfilaments

44

Why do sponge cells from different sponges not mix together?

Due to different cadherins within the sponge cells associating only with its specific sponge

45

What did j holtfreters experiment show that h v Wilson's did Not?

That there are associated cadherins for different types of tissues. Ex. E-cadherins for epidermal cells

46

Compare and contrast cadherins and integrins?

Cadherins are transmembrane proteins that connect cells to other cellsIntegrins are transmembrane proteins that connect cells to the extra cellular matrix

47

Which types of cytoskeletal types are involved in adheren junctions and desmosomes?

Adheren junctions: cadherins bonded to microfilamentsDesmosomes: cadherins bonded to intermediate filaments

48

What is the difference between hemidesmosome and desmosomes?

Hemidesmosome: use integrin to bind basal lamina to intermediate filaments (cell to connective tissue)Desmosomes: use cadherins binded to intermediate filaments (cell to cell)

49

How are integrins and hemidesmosome different?

Integrins bind to microfilaments in the cell where hemidesmosomes bind to intermediate filaments in the cell

50

What is a tight junction?

Junctional complexes that seal between cells so that travel between cells must be mitigated by cellular transport mechanisms

51

Do tight functions provide a lot of tensile strength, is it enough for epithelial cells to adhere to each other using tight junctions?

No There function is to prevent passage of material between cells not to anchor them

52

How can bands of tight junctions establish different regions of the cell?

Tight junctions can form regions of the cell which can prevent different molecules from diffusing from one end to the other

53

How are gap junctions different from tight junctions?

Gap junctions allow for material to pass between cell membranes. There not used to anchor cells to other cells

54

Where is the ECM located and how is it made?

Located in connective tissues to provide support and protection.It is synthesized, secreted and maintained by many types of cells

55

What basic types of molecules is the ECM made of?

Proteins and polysaccharides

56

What are some of the fibrous types of proteins found in the ECM?

Collagen, elastin and laminin

57

If we compared the ECM to a concrete what components would be the rebar and what components would the masonry?

Rebar would be the collagen, elastin and laminin fibresThe masonry would be the gel like polysaccharide matrix

58

How is collagen similar to and different from intermediate filaments?

Similar: long fibrous molecules formed into bundlesDifferent: triple helix structure

59

What are fibroblasts and where can they be found?

A cell found in connective tissue that synthesizes collagen and the ECM

60

Where do you find basal lamina and what is their function?

It is found at the base of all epithelial cellsProvides structural base of support

61

Is the basal lamina made up of cells of by an ECM made of cells?

ECM as it contains collagen

62

How are epithelial cells anchored to basal lamina, what cellular junction type is involved and what cell adhesion proteins are used?

Anchored by hemidesmosomesCell junction?Cell adhesion involves intermediate filaments and integrin

63

Define malignant

Cn mestastize meaning break away from the main tumor and colonize distant cells

64

Define benign

Tumours that are encapsulated and continuously divide because regulation of cell division has gone weary

65

Why do some cells take on a flat shape or a three dimensional shape?

It depends on what matrix they're grown on the cell will grow to Maxine it adhesions to the matrix

66

Define a tissue

A biological collection of cells that work together to perform a specific function