Ch 10- leftover from Midterm Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 10- leftover from Midterm Deck (24)
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1

chemicals that affect physiology in ANY manner
medication
caffeine
alcohol
tobacco

drugs

2

drugs rear act AGAINST DISEASES
insulin
anticancer drugs
antimicrobials

chemotherapeutic agents

3

drugs that TREAT infection
antibiotics
antivirals
antiprotozoans
antifungals
antihelminthics

antimicrobial agents

4

mechanisms of antimicrobial actions-- key is _____ (MORE toxic to pathogen than to pathogen host)

selective toxicity

5

LARGEST # and DIVERSITY is ______ DRUGS

antibacterial

6

fewer drugs treat _______ infections, but even fewer _______ drugs

eukaryotic
antiviral

7

mechanisms of action-- steps of antimicrobial drugs

1 inhibition of cell wall synthesis
2 inhibition of protein synthesis
3 disruption of cytoplasmic membrane
4 inhibition of general metabolic pathway
5 inhibition of DNA or RNA synthesis
6 inhibition of pathogen's attachment to, or recognition of, host

8

drug can SELECTIVELY target translation without affecting eukaryotes, but _____ of animals AND humans contain ___ ribosomes, which can BE HARMFUL

mitochondria
70S

9

clinical considerations in prescribing antimicrobial agents

spectrum of action
narrow vs. broad

10

effective against FEW organism; more important to know WHAT organism is causing infection

narrow spectrum

11

effective against MANY organisms, may allow for SECONDARY or SUPERINFECTIONS to develop

broad spectrum

12

negative, unintended effects of prescribing antimicrobial drugs

adverse reactions

13

hypersensitivity, rare but life threatening

anaphylactic shock

14

consideration needed when prescribing drugs to PREGNANT WOMEN

toxicity

15

disruption of normal microbiota --> overgrowth of normal flora causing SECONDARY INFECTION= greatest concern for ______ patients

hospitalized

16

emerging disease with eyeball, inflammation of cornea-- single celled amoeba

acanthamoeba keratitis

17

some bacteria acquire resistance to antimicrobial drugs in 2 ways:

new mutations
acquisition of R-plasmids (horizontal gene transfer)

18

at least 6 mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance

1 production of enzymes that destroy
2 slow or precent entry of drug into cell
3 alter target of drug so it binds less effectively
4 alter their own metabolic chemistry
5 pump antimicrobial drugs out of cell before it can act
6 myobacterium tuberculosis produces MfpA that confers resistance

19

pathogen acquires resistance to more than 1 drugs
common with R plasmids
*SUPERBUGS*

multiple resistance

20

resistance to one antimicrobial agent may confer resistance to SIMILAR DRUGS

cross resistance

21

1 way to retard resistance to antimicrobial drugs is to maintain ____ concentration of drug in patient for _____ time that leads to ______ in COMBINATION

high
SUFFICIENT
antimicrobial agents

22

one drug enhances affect of other

synergism

23

1 way to retard resistance to antimicrobial drugs is to use _____ only when NECESSARY, develop _____ of existing drugs and search for ________

antimicrobials
new variations
new antibiotics

24

bacterial communication chemicals

quorum sensing