Flashcards in Ch 1.1-1.6 Deck (50):
Describe Wundt's first experiment?
1879 in Germany, Wundt and two students observed the difference in time it took for people to press a key after hearing a bell, it took 1/10 a second to press it as soon as they heard the noise vs. people that took 2/10 a second when they were aware they heard it
Looking inward, responding to experiences with how they felt or thought
Introspection that led to structuralism. Proved to not be effective
Discovering the minds structure by asking people to respond how they felt after smelling, tasting, or looking
William James ideas
Wondering why our noses smelled and why our eyes see. Belief that our conscious effects our survival, we learn to adapt
What is Mary Whiton Calkins known for
Being the first women president of the American Psychological Association in 1905
What is Margaret Floy Washburn known for
First female to receive a PH D, 2nd women president of the American Psychological Association 1921, and wrote book called "The Animal Mind"
What event defined the start of scientific psychology?
Wundts laboratory 1879
Why did introspection fail as a method for understanding how the mind works?
There were too many variables, they depended on the persons intelligence and verbal ability
The school of ______ used introspection to define the minds makeup
_______ focused on how mental processes enable us to adapt, survive, and flourish
What was the leading definition from 1920-1960's? Created by Watson and Skinner
Observing and recording peoples behavior as they are taught, the idea that you can't observe a feeling or thought
Freudian psych focused on...
How childhood experiences affect our behavior
During the 1960's psychologist began to reject behaviorism and developed...
Who's ideas influenced the start of humanistic psychology?
Carl Rogers and Maslow
Describe Humanistic psychology
Belief that current environment and fulfillment of love/acceptance were more important than early childhood memories
Science of behavior and mental process
What is the difference of behavior and mental processes?
Behavior is anything an organism does, yelling, breathing, sweating, shaking, smiling.
Mental processes is internal behavior we infer from behavior, dreaming, perceptions, beliefs, thoughts, questions.
What were the two major factors in psychology from the 1920s-1960's?
Behaviorism and Freudian
Science of the mind, how we perceive, process, memory
Science of the brain
Study of cognitive psychology and neuroscience
Nature vs. nurture, Plato vs. Aristotle
Nature: Plato believed we inherit certain characteristics at birth
Nurture: Aristotle believed we learn all characteristics
Who theorized natural selection, and define
Darwins idea was that nature selects certain traits to help a species survive, w/out these traits that species would die
Study of behavior&mind using natural selection, how are humans ALIKE due to common biology
Study of relative pwrs&limits of genetic&environmental influences of behavior. How are humans DIFFERENT due to genetics&environment?
Shared ideas&behaviors passed down from one generation to the next
Focus on human flourishing, finding and promoting community strengths
How did the cognitive revolution affect the field of psych
It recaptured psychs early ideas and made it acceptable to study
What is contemporary psychs position on nature-nurture?
"Nurture works on what nature endows" our species is constantly learning&adapting but every thought/feeling is a biological event
What are the 3 levels of analysis?
Biological, psychological, social-cultural
Genetics, natural selection passed through generations, genes responding to environment
Learned fears/expectations, emotional responses, cognitive processing/interpretations
Presence of others, cultural/family expectations, peer influences/society role models
What advantages do we gain by using the biopsychosocial approach?
By using the different levels for analysis, this approach gives us a more complete look at any situation
The ______ perspective in psych focuses on how behavior and thought differ from situation to situation and from culture to culture.
The _____ perspective emphasizes observation of how we respond to&clears in different situations
What is the uniting factor of psych? (Hint: think of definition)
Describing&explaining behavior and the mind
Basic research and examples
Pure science that aims to increase base of scientific knowledge
Ex. Biological, developmental, cognitive, personality, social psychologists
Applied research and examples
Scientific study that aims to solve practical problems
Ex. Industrial-organizational psychologists
Help people cope w/ challenges and crises and improve social and personal functioning
Assess and treat mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders
Medically licensed doctors to prescribe drugs&provide psychotherapy
Examines how communities effect health, ex. How a school tolerates bullying and how that in turn effects the students
What are psychologys main subfields?
Within the science of psychology, scientists may work with basic research to improve base of scientific knowledge or applied research to solve practical problems. Those psychologists who strive to help are clinical, counseling, community, or psychiatrists
William James was a ______
Wundt and Titchener were ______