Ch 1.1-1.6 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 1.1-1.6 Deck (50):
1

Describe Wundt's first experiment?

1879 in Germany, Wundt and two students observed the difference in time it took for people to press a key after hearing a bell, it took 1/10 a second to press it as soon as they heard the noise vs. people that took 2/10 a second when they were aware they heard it

2

Introspection

Looking inward, responding to experiences with how they felt or thought

3

Titchener's ideas

Introspection that led to structuralism. Proved to not be effective

4

Structuralism

Discovering the minds structure by asking people to respond how they felt after smelling, tasting, or looking

5

William James ideas

Functualism

6

Functualism

Wondering why our noses smelled and why our eyes see. Belief that our conscious effects our survival, we learn to adapt

7

What is Mary Whiton Calkins known for

Being the first women president of the American Psychological Association in 1905

8

What is Margaret Floy Washburn known for

First female to receive a PH D, 2nd women president of the American Psychological Association 1921, and wrote book called "The Animal Mind"

9

What event defined the start of scientific psychology?

Wundts laboratory 1879

10

Why did introspection fail as a method for understanding how the mind works?

There were too many variables, they depended on the persons intelligence and verbal ability

11

The school of ______ used introspection to define the minds makeup

Structuralism

12

_______ focused on how mental processes enable us to adapt, survive, and flourish

Functualism

13

What was the leading definition from 1920-1960's? Created by Watson and Skinner

Behaviorism

14

Define behaviorism

Observing and recording peoples behavior as they are taught, the idea that you can't observe a feeling or thought

15

Freudian psych focused on...

How childhood experiences affect our behavior

16

During the 1960's psychologist began to reject behaviorism and developed...

Humanistic psychology

17

Who's ideas influenced the start of humanistic psychology?

Carl Rogers and Maslow

18

Describe Humanistic psychology

Belief that current environment and fulfillment of love/acceptance were more important than early childhood memories

19

Define psychology

Science of behavior and mental process

20

What is the difference of behavior and mental processes?

Behavior is anything an organism does, yelling, breathing, sweating, shaking, smiling.
Mental processes is internal behavior we infer from behavior, dreaming, perceptions, beliefs, thoughts, questions.

21

What were the two major factors in psychology from the 1920s-1960's?

Behaviorism and Freudian

22

Cognitive psychology

Science of the mind, how we perceive, process, memory

23

Neuroscience

Science of the brain

24

Cognitive neuroscience

Study of cognitive psychology and neuroscience

25

Nature vs. nurture, Plato vs. Aristotle

Nature: Plato believed we inherit certain characteristics at birth
Nurture: Aristotle believed we learn all characteristics

26

Who theorized natural selection, and define

Darwins idea was that nature selects certain traits to help a species survive, w/out these traits that species would die

27

Evolutionary psych

Study of behavior&mind using natural selection, how are humans ALIKE due to common biology

28

Behavior genetics

Study of relative pwrs&limits of genetic&environmental influences of behavior. How are humans DIFFERENT due to genetics&environment?

29

Culture

Shared ideas&behaviors passed down from one generation to the next

30

Positive psych

Focus on human flourishing, finding and promoting community strengths

31

How did the cognitive revolution affect the field of psych

It recaptured psychs early ideas and made it acceptable to study

32

What is contemporary psychs position on nature-nurture?

"Nurture works on what nature endows" our species is constantly learning&adapting but every thought/feeling is a biological event

33

What are the 3 levels of analysis?

Biological, psychological, social-cultural

34

Biological influences

Genetics, natural selection passed through generations, genes responding to environment

35

Psychological influences

Learned fears/expectations, emotional responses, cognitive processing/interpretations

36

Social-cultural influences

Presence of others, cultural/family expectations, peer influences/society role models

37

What advantages do we gain by using the biopsychosocial approach?

By using the different levels for analysis, this approach gives us a more complete look at any situation

38

The ______ perspective in psych focuses on how behavior and thought differ from situation to situation and from culture to culture.

Social-cultural

39

The _____ perspective emphasizes observation of how we respond to&clears in different situations

Behavioral

40

What is the uniting factor of psych? (Hint: think of definition)

Describing&explaining behavior and the mind

41

Basic research and examples

Pure science that aims to increase base of scientific knowledge
Ex. Biological, developmental, cognitive, personality, social psychologists

42

Applied research and examples

Scientific study that aims to solve practical problems
Ex. Industrial-organizational psychologists

43

Counseling psychologists

Help people cope w/ challenges and crises and improve social and personal functioning

44

Clinical psychologists

Assess and treat mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders

45

Psychiatrists

Medically licensed doctors to prescribe drugs&provide psychotherapy

46

Community psychologists

Examines how communities effect health, ex. How a school tolerates bullying and how that in turn effects the students

47

What are psychologys main subfields?

Within the science of psychology, scientists may work with basic research to improve base of scientific knowledge or applied research to solve practical problems. Those psychologists who strive to help are clinical, counseling, community, or psychiatrists

48

William James was a ______

Functualist

49

Wundt and Titchener were ______

Structuralist

50

Who redefined psychology as "the science of observable behavior"

John B. Watson