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Flashcards in Chapter 2.1 Deck (63):
1

What is the building block of the nervous system?

Neurons

2

The three broad classes of neurons are:

Sensory neurons, interneurons and motor neurons

3

What type of neurons carry information from the body's organs and tissues to the central nervous system?

Sensory neurons

4

Interneurons can only be found:

In the brain and spinal cord

5

Sensory and motor neurons are linked by

Interneurons

6

Amy's ______ do the additional processing needed to make sense of events occurring within her body and outside in the environment

Interneurons

7

Dales ______ carry instructions from his central nervous system to his muscles

Motor neurons

8

The part of the neuron that receives messages from other neurons is the

Dendrites

9

The part of the neuron that is specialized for sending impulses to other neurons is

Axon

10

Another word for the soma is

Cell body

11

An axon can range in length from a fraction of an inch to

Several feet

12

What is only found in the intracellular fluid

Proteins with a negative charge

13

In its resting state an axon has

More negative particles inside the axon than outside

14

The movement of _____ and _____ through the membrane is most central to action potentials

Sodium; potassium

15

Sodium ions are more concentrated in the _____ while potassium ions are more concentrated in the ______

Extracellular fluid; intracellular fluid

16

Ions are captured and pushed through the membrane by

Sodium and potassium pumps

17

When a neuron fires ____ rushes into the axon and makes that part of the axon more ____ compared to the extra cellular fluid

Sodium; positive

18

The ______ charge of one section of an axon causes the _____ of the next section to open

Positive; sodium gates

19

An action potential is comprised of a series of

Depolarizations

20

The membrane is re polarized when gates open and _____ flow out of the axon

Potassium ions

21

Synaptic vesicles contain

Neurotransmitters

22

Neurotransmitters are released from

Synaptic vesicles

23

Which part of the neuron is most closely associated with the speed with which it can convey an impulse

Myelin sheath

24

Which type of ions have a negative charge in the extracellular fluid?

Chloride ions

25

Neurotransmitters are released into the

Synaptic gap

26

Glial cells

"Glue cells", provides nutrients and myelin sheath, guides neural connections and cleans up after neurons send messages. Important in learning&thinking, they can "chat" w/neurons

27

Action potential

Impulse fired by a neuron, brief electrical charge travels down axon

28

Neural impulses are ____ than a computer

Slower

29

Exterior fluid is ______ charged _____ ions

Positive; sodium

30

Axon's interior fluid is mostly ____ charged _____ ions

Negative; potassium

31

Loss of inside/outside charge creates chain reaction of axon channels opening this is called _____

Depolarization

32

Excitatory neural signal

"Neuron's accelerator"

33

Inhibitory neural signal

"Neuron's brake"

34

What is the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse called

Threshold

35

Refractory period

Brief period after neuron has fired; action potentials cant occur until axon returns to resting state

36

All-or-none response

Neurons reaction of firing or not firing. Increasing stimulus doesn't increase intensity, stronger stimulus triggers more neurons to fire&more often, but doesn't affect strength or speed

37

Reuptake

Neurotransmitters reabsorption by sending neuron

38

What are two ways cells get rid of excess neurotransmitters after a neuron reacts?

Reputable, or they drift away and get broken down by enzymes

39

What happens in the synaptic gap?

Neurons send neurotransmitters between one neuron's terminal branch and the next neuron's dendrites or cell body.

40

How do nerve cells communicate w/other nerve cells?

When action potential reaches the end of an axon it releases neurotransmissions.

41

Acetylcholine (ACh)

Learning&memory drug, messenger between motor neurons&skeletal muscle

42

Endorphins

Natural opiate like neurotransmitters linked to pain cntrl&pleasure, discovered by Candace Pert&Solomon Snyder 1973

43

Agonist

Molecule that increases neurotransmitters action, some can bing to receptors and mimic excitatory effects

44

Antagonist

Blocks/inhibits neurotransmitters action. Ex. Botox

45

Curare poisoning paralyzed victims by blocking ACh receptors involved in muscle movements. Morphine mimics endorphin actions. Which is the antagonist and agonist?

Morphing is the agonist. Curare is the antagonist.

46

Nervous system function and its two sub parts:

Body's speedy, electrochemical communication network, consisting of all nerve cells of peripheral and CNS

47

Central nervous system function and two parts

Body's decision maker, brain and spinal cord

48

Peripheral nervous system function and two sub systems

Gathers info and transmits CNS decisions to other body parts; somatic nervous system and autonomic nervous system

49

Nerves

Bundled axons that form neural cables connecting central nervous system w muscle glands and organs

50

Sensory neurons

Carry incoming info from sensory receptors to brain and spinal cord

51

Motor neurons

Carry instructions from CNS out to body's muscles and organs

52

Interneurons

W/in brain and spinal cord; communicates internally and process info between sensory input and motor outputs

53

What is the function of the Somatic nervous system, and what it is a sub part of?

A part of the peripheral nervous system, controls body's skeletal muscles

54

Autonomic nervous system function and two sub divisions

A part of the Peripheral system, cntrls glands and muscles of internal organs, sympathetic system and parasympathetic

55

Sympathetic nervous system

Arouses and expands energy; ex adrenaline

56

Parasympathetic

Conserves energy and calms

57

Sympathetic and parasympathetic systems work together to maintain _______

Homeostasis

58

Endocrine system

"Slow" chemical communication system, set of glands that secrete hormones into blood stream

59

Hormones

Chemical messengers made by endocrine glands, travel through bloodstream and affect tissue

60

What are the differences and similarities of the nervous and endocrine system?

Sim: both produce molecules that act on receptors. Diff: nervous. Is high-speed endo is slow and feelings linger

61

Adrenal glands

Pair of endocrine glands above kidneys, secrete hormones that arose

62

Pituitary gland

Pea size structure in center of the Brian, releases growth chemical and oxytocin, "master-gland", can tell other organs to release hormones

63

How does the endocrine system transmit info and interact w/ nervous system

Endocrine releases hormones into bloodstream which effects tissues, including the brain. The pituitary gland influences hormones release by other glands.