Flashcards in Chapter 2.1 Deck (63):
What is the building block of the nervous system?
The three broad classes of neurons are:
Sensory neurons, interneurons and motor neurons
What type of neurons carry information from the body's organs and tissues to the central nervous system?
Interneurons can only be found:
In the brain and spinal cord
Sensory and motor neurons are linked by
Amy's ______ do the additional processing needed to make sense of events occurring within her body and outside in the environment
Dales ______ carry instructions from his central nervous system to his muscles
The part of the neuron that receives messages from other neurons is the
The part of the neuron that is specialized for sending impulses to other neurons is
Another word for the soma is
An axon can range in length from a fraction of an inch to
What is only found in the intracellular fluid
Proteins with a negative charge
In its resting state an axon has
More negative particles inside the axon than outside
The movement of _____ and _____ through the membrane is most central to action potentials
Sodium ions are more concentrated in the _____ while potassium ions are more concentrated in the ______
Extracellular fluid; intracellular fluid
Ions are captured and pushed through the membrane by
Sodium and potassium pumps
When a neuron fires ____ rushes into the axon and makes that part of the axon more ____ compared to the extra cellular fluid
The ______ charge of one section of an axon causes the _____ of the next section to open
Positive; sodium gates
An action potential is comprised of a series of
The membrane is re polarized when gates open and _____ flow out of the axon
Synaptic vesicles contain
Neurotransmitters are released from
Which part of the neuron is most closely associated with the speed with which it can convey an impulse
Which type of ions have a negative charge in the extracellular fluid?
Neurotransmitters are released into the
"Glue cells", provides nutrients and myelin sheath, guides neural connections and cleans up after neurons send messages. Important in learning&thinking, they can "chat" w/neurons
Impulse fired by a neuron, brief electrical charge travels down axon
Neural impulses are ____ than a computer
Exterior fluid is ______ charged _____ ions
Axon's interior fluid is mostly ____ charged _____ ions
Loss of inside/outside charge creates chain reaction of axon channels opening this is called _____
Excitatory neural signal
Inhibitory neural signal
What is the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse called
Brief period after neuron has fired; action potentials cant occur until axon returns to resting state
Neurons reaction of firing or not firing. Increasing stimulus doesn't increase intensity, stronger stimulus triggers more neurons to fire&more often, but doesn't affect strength or speed
Neurotransmitters reabsorption by sending neuron
What are two ways cells get rid of excess neurotransmitters after a neuron reacts?
Reputable, or they drift away and get broken down by enzymes
What happens in the synaptic gap?
Neurons send neurotransmitters between one neuron's terminal branch and the next neuron's dendrites or cell body.
How do nerve cells communicate w/other nerve cells?
When action potential reaches the end of an axon it releases neurotransmissions.
Learning&memory drug, messenger between motor neurons&skeletal muscle
Natural opiate like neurotransmitters linked to pain cntrl&pleasure, discovered by Candace Pert&Solomon Snyder 1973
Molecule that increases neurotransmitters action, some can bing to receptors and mimic excitatory effects
Blocks/inhibits neurotransmitters action. Ex. Botox
Curare poisoning paralyzed victims by blocking ACh receptors involved in muscle movements. Morphine mimics endorphin actions. Which is the antagonist and agonist?
Morphing is the agonist. Curare is the antagonist.
Nervous system function and its two sub parts:
Body's speedy, electrochemical communication network, consisting of all nerve cells of peripheral and CNS
Central nervous system function and two parts
Body's decision maker, brain and spinal cord
Peripheral nervous system function and two sub systems
Gathers info and transmits CNS decisions to other body parts; somatic nervous system and autonomic nervous system
Bundled axons that form neural cables connecting central nervous system w muscle glands and organs
Carry incoming info from sensory receptors to brain and spinal cord
Carry instructions from CNS out to body's muscles and organs
W/in brain and spinal cord; communicates internally and process info between sensory input and motor outputs
What is the function of the Somatic nervous system, and what it is a sub part of?
A part of the peripheral nervous system, controls body's skeletal muscles
Autonomic nervous system function and two sub divisions
A part of the Peripheral system, cntrls glands and muscles of internal organs, sympathetic system and parasympathetic
Sympathetic nervous system
Arouses and expands energy; ex adrenaline
Conserves energy and calms
Sympathetic and parasympathetic systems work together to maintain _______
"Slow" chemical communication system, set of glands that secrete hormones into blood stream
Chemical messengers made by endocrine glands, travel through bloodstream and affect tissue
What are the differences and similarities of the nervous and endocrine system?
Sim: both produce molecules that act on receptors. Diff: nervous. Is high-speed endo is slow and feelings linger
Pair of endocrine glands above kidneys, secrete hormones that arose
Pea size structure in center of the Brian, releases growth chemical and oxytocin, "master-gland", can tell other organs to release hormones