Chapter 1.7-1.13 Flashcards Preview

Psych > Chapter 1.7-1.13 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 1.7-1.13 Deck (47):
1

Intuition

Effortless, immediate, automatic feeling or thought as contrasted w/ explicit, conscious reasoning

2

Why can we not rely solely on intuition?

Hind sight bias, overconfidence, and our tendency to perceive patterns in random events

3

Tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it

Hindsight bias

4

Thinking you know more than you do, after finding out the outcome it becomes "obvious"

Over confidence

5

Random sequences often don't look random, some random sequences seem so extraordinary that we find it difficult to believe

Perceiving order in random events

6

Explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observation and predicts behaviors

Theory

7

Testable prediction, often implied by a theory

Hypothesis

8

Replication

Repeating essence of research study w/different subjects and locations to see if they get same results

9

Why are theories useful?

They organize observations, implies predictions so anyone can test, stimulates further research and retheorizing

10

Why is replication important?

The more scientists can prove a theory in different experiments, the more reliable the theory is

11

How do theories advance psychological science?

Organizing observations and creating hypotheses allows scientists to test and replicate experiments. These experiments are either proven right or wrong. If proven wrong the scientist can than re theorize. All of this advances psychological science because scientists discover things through theories.

12

Case studies

Description technique in which on individual/group is studied in depth in hope of revealing universal principles. In-depth analysis of groups/individuals. We are more likely to believe a story vs. cold facts about an individual case

13

Why cant we assume case studies reveal general principles that apply to us all?

Case studies involve one group or individual so we cant apply those principles/observations to a large population.

14

Naturalistic observation

Descriptive tech of observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations w/out trying to manipulate and control situations

15

Self-reported att/behaviors of particular group, wording/phrasing greatly effects outcome, must use random sample of populations

Survey

16

Fairly represents population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion, you cant compensate for unrepresentative sample by simply adding more people

Random sample

17

What is an unrepresentative sample and how do researchers avoid it?

Random sampling helps because then each member of a population has a chance of being surveyed

18

Correlation

Measuring of extent to which two factors vary together, and thus how well either factor predicts the other

19

How closely two things vary together and thus how well either one predicts the other. Represented by scale of -1.00 to +1.00

Correlation coefficient

20

Positive correlation

How two things increase/decrease together. On scale from 0 to +1.00

21

Negative correlation

Inverse relationship, as one thing increases the other decreases. Scale of 0 to -1.00

22

Does correlation associate w/ causation?

No. Correlation is how two things vary together, but do not cause one to thing to effect another

23

+ or - correlation? The more children used various media, the less happy they are

Negative

24

+ or - correlation? The longer children are breastfed, the greater their later academic achievements

Positive

25

+ or - correlation? Less sexual content teens saw on TV, less likely they were to have sex.

Positive

26

What are the five steps in the scientific method?

Hypothesis, observation&testing, data collection, analysis of results, reporting

27

What are two important factors of the scientific method?

Reliability and validity

28

Experiment

Research method in which investigator manipulates one of more factors (independent variables) to observe effect of behavior (dependent variables)

29

Experimental group

Group exposed to the treatment

30

Control group

Group not exposed to treatment so scientists can compare results of the experimental group to

31

Random assignment

Randomly assigning participants to control or experimental group

32

Double-blind procedure

Both participants and administers don't know which group is receiving treatment. This eliminates placebo effect

33

Placebo effect

Results caused by expectations alone, if you believe it will work chances are it will.

34

Independent variable

Factor that is manipulated

35

Dependent variable

Factor being measured, it may change when independent variable is manipulated

36

Confounding variable

Factor other than the factor being studied that might produce effect

37

What are the characteristics of experimentation that make it possible to isolate cause and effect?

Scientists use random assignment of participants to either a control group of experimental group. This eliminates confounding variables. The control group receives a placebo, the experimental group receives the treatment. The control group is used as a comparison for the results of the experimental group. A double-blind procedure eliminates a placebo effect. And the result of the independent variable on the dependent variable is analyzed.

38

What are the two main ethical questions on animal testing

Is it right to place the wellbeing of animals above humans? If we give human life priority, how do we protect research animals?

39

What are APA's four guidelines to protect human experimentation?

Obtain participants informed consent, protect from no greater than normal harm, keep information confidential, and include a full debrief after experiment

40

Informed consent

Giving participants enough info to decide if they want to participate or not

41

Debriefing

Post experimental explanation of study, include purpose and any deceptions

42

How are animals and human research participants protected?

Through animal protection legislations, lab regulations&checks, ethic committees. The APA also requires informed consent of participants, protection against greater than usual harm, protection of their information, and a full debriefing post experiment.

43

Why do psychologists study animals?

Humans are animals. Psychologists can learn a lot from the similar and simplified characteristics of animals.

44

How do human values influence psych?

They effect what and how we study, and how we analyze the results. Labels describe and evaluate ones true feelings. Ex. Using the word cocky vs confident

45

Observation comes to the ______ conclusion

Descriptive

46

Correlation comes to the ______ conclusion

Predictive

47

Experimental comes to the ______ conclusion

Causation