Flashcards in Chapter 1.7-1.13 Deck (47):
Effortless, immediate, automatic feeling or thought as contrasted w/ explicit, conscious reasoning
Why can we not rely solely on intuition?
Hind sight bias, overconfidence, and our tendency to perceive patterns in random events
Tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it
Thinking you know more than you do, after finding out the outcome it becomes "obvious"
Random sequences often don't look random, some random sequences seem so extraordinary that we find it difficult to believe
Perceiving order in random events
Explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observation and predicts behaviors
Testable prediction, often implied by a theory
Repeating essence of research study w/different subjects and locations to see if they get same results
Why are theories useful?
They organize observations, implies predictions so anyone can test, stimulates further research and retheorizing
Why is replication important?
The more scientists can prove a theory in different experiments, the more reliable the theory is
How do theories advance psychological science?
Organizing observations and creating hypotheses allows scientists to test and replicate experiments. These experiments are either proven right or wrong. If proven wrong the scientist can than re theorize. All of this advances psychological science because scientists discover things through theories.
Description technique in which on individual/group is studied in depth in hope of revealing universal principles. In-depth analysis of groups/individuals. We are more likely to believe a story vs. cold facts about an individual case
Why cant we assume case studies reveal general principles that apply to us all?
Case studies involve one group or individual so we cant apply those principles/observations to a large population.
Descriptive tech of observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations w/out trying to manipulate and control situations
Self-reported att/behaviors of particular group, wording/phrasing greatly effects outcome, must use random sample of populations
Fairly represents population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion, you cant compensate for unrepresentative sample by simply adding more people
What is an unrepresentative sample and how do researchers avoid it?
Random sampling helps because then each member of a population has a chance of being surveyed
Measuring of extent to which two factors vary together, and thus how well either factor predicts the other
How closely two things vary together and thus how well either one predicts the other. Represented by scale of -1.00 to +1.00
How two things increase/decrease together. On scale from 0 to +1.00
Inverse relationship, as one thing increases the other decreases. Scale of 0 to -1.00
Does correlation associate w/ causation?
No. Correlation is how two things vary together, but do not cause one to thing to effect another
+ or - correlation? The more children used various media, the less happy they are
+ or - correlation? The longer children are breastfed, the greater their later academic achievements
+ or - correlation? Less sexual content teens saw on TV, less likely they were to have sex.
What are the five steps in the scientific method?
Hypothesis, observation&testing, data collection, analysis of results, reporting
What are two important factors of the scientific method?
Reliability and validity
Research method in which investigator manipulates one of more factors (independent variables) to observe effect of behavior (dependent variables)
Group exposed to the treatment
Group not exposed to treatment so scientists can compare results of the experimental group to
Randomly assigning participants to control or experimental group
Both participants and administers don't know which group is receiving treatment. This eliminates placebo effect
Results caused by expectations alone, if you believe it will work chances are it will.
Factor that is manipulated
Factor being measured, it may change when independent variable is manipulated
Factor other than the factor being studied that might produce effect
What are the characteristics of experimentation that make it possible to isolate cause and effect?
Scientists use random assignment of participants to either a control group of experimental group. This eliminates confounding variables. The control group receives a placebo, the experimental group receives the treatment. The control group is used as a comparison for the results of the experimental group. A double-blind procedure eliminates a placebo effect. And the result of the independent variable on the dependent variable is analyzed.
What are the two main ethical questions on animal testing
Is it right to place the wellbeing of animals above humans? If we give human life priority, how do we protect research animals?
What are APA's four guidelines to protect human experimentation?
Obtain participants informed consent, protect from no greater than normal harm, keep information confidential, and include a full debrief after experiment
Giving participants enough info to decide if they want to participate or not
Post experimental explanation of study, include purpose and any deceptions
How are animals and human research participants protected?
Through animal protection legislations, lab regulations&checks, ethic committees. The APA also requires informed consent of participants, protection against greater than usual harm, protection of their information, and a full debriefing post experiment.
Why do psychologists study animals?
Humans are animals. Psychologists can learn a lot from the similar and simplified characteristics of animals.
How do human values influence psych?
They effect what and how we study, and how we analyze the results. Labels describe and evaluate ones true feelings. Ex. Using the word cocky vs confident
Observation comes to the ______ conclusion
Correlation comes to the ______ conclusion