ch 11 - Reasoning about the design and execution of research Flashcards Preview

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1

scientific method

1. generate a testable question, 2. gather data and resources, 3. form a hypothesis, 4. collect new data, 5. Analyze the data, 6. Interpret the data, 7. Publish, 8. Verify results

2

positive controls

those that ensure a change in the dependent variable when it is expected

3

negative controls

ensure no change in the dependent variable when no change is expected

4

causal relationship

if change in independent variable always precedes change in dependent variable, and change in dependent variable does not occur in absence of experimental intervention

5

Accuracy

ability of instrument to measure a true value

6

precision

also called reliability, ability of an instrument to read consistently or within a narrow range

7

Randomization

members of a test group randomly selected to go into either a control or sham group, or the test group

8

single-blind experiments

the patient or the assessor is blinded

9

double-blind experiments

investigator, subject and assessor are all blinded

10

binary variables

yes vs. no, better vs. worse

11

continuous variables

amount of weight lost, percent improvement in cardiac output

12

categorical variables

state of residence, socioeconomic status

13

categories of observational studies

cohort studies, cross-sectional studies, case-control studies

14

cohort studies

observational study in which subjects are sorted into two groups based on differences in risk factors (exposures), and then assessed at various intervals to determine how many subjects in each group had a certain outcome

15

cross-sectional studies

attempt to categorize patients into different groups at a single point in time

16

case-control studies

identify the number of subjects with or without a particular outcome, then look backwards to assess how many subjects in each group had exposure to a particular risk factor

17

Hill's Criteria

describe components of an observed relationship that increase the likelihood of causality in the relationship; include temporality, strength, dose-response relationship, consistency, plausibility, consideration for alternative explanations, experiment, specificity, and coherence

18

bias

result of flaws in data collection phase of an experimental or observational study

19

confounding

error during analysis; incorrect relationship is characterized in data that may or may not be flawed.

20

selection bias

subjects used for the study are not representative of the target population

21

detection bias

results from educated professionals using their knowledge in an inconsistent way. finding one variable that prior studies have indicated correlates to another variable increases likelihood that researcher will then search automatically for that second variable.

22

Hawthorne effect

also called observational bias; posits that behavior of study participants is altered simply because they recognize that they are being studied

23

confounding variables (confounders)

third party variables in which there is no direct causality between two findings. For ex people may have red hair and be more likely to have lower pain tolerance which could both be caused by a gene mutation but do not have a causal relationship to each other

24

four core ethical tenets

beneficence, nonmaleficence, autonomy (of patients), justice

25

morally relevant differences

those differences between individuals that are considered an appropriate reason to treat them differently (such as age)

26

equipoise

in studies comparing two potential treatment options, one cannot approach the research with the knowledge that one treatment is superior to the other

27

population

complete group of every individual that satisfies the attributes of interest

28

parameter

information that is calculated using every person in a population

29

sample

any group taken from a population that does not include all individuals from the population

30

internal validity

support for causality