Ch 12 (Ch 2) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 12 (Ch 2) Deck (35)
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1

solution

homogenous mixture of two or more substances

2

forming solutions depends on

IMF and whether like dissolves like with IMF

3

solid solutions preparation

requires melting first to get atoms to move freely

4

molarity

moles of solute over total volume of solution in L
- not good for changing temp

5

molality

moles of solute over kg of SOLVENT
- good for changing temp

6

mole fraction

X
- moles A over total number of moles

7

mass percentage

g of solute over total g of SOLUTION times 100

8

parts per million

1 mg/ 1 L

9

parts per billion

1 microgram/ 1 L

10

misclible

can mix together

11

insoluble

dissolves in trace amounta

12

like dissolves like

LDF and LDF vs LDf and H bond is a no

13

immiscible

if its polar and non polar. if another compound was added, it would go to the layer that it was most like

14

acetone

soluble in polar and non polar so it would just mix a little in bothe

15

covalent solids solubilty

insoluble

16

molecular solids solubiliyty

like dissolves like

17

metals solubility

dissolve in other metals

18

alloys

metal mixtures

19

substitutional alloys

solute is same size as solvent so it take the spot of the solvent

20

interstitial alloys

solute is smaller so it fits between the solvent

21

amalgam

mercury mixtures

22

ions dissolving in water

called solvation
1) break solute solute bonds
2) break solvent solvent bonds
3) form solvent solute bonds which are called ion dipole attractions (this is exothermic)

23

practice drawing a solvation curve thing

e is on the y, must draw line at start and end of arrows and final delta H

24

add acid to

water

25

temperature and solubulity

higher temps is higher sol EXCEPT FOR GAS

26

henry's law

concentration of dissolved gas is proportional to the partial pressure of the gas

[gas]=Kh(Pgas) --> mol fraction

Kh is mol/L atm

27

colligative properties

properties that occur when you mix any nonvolatile solute

based on number of particles (i)

1. vapor pressure reduction
2. boiling point elevation
3. freezing point depression
4. osmotic pressure

28

vapor pressure reduction

more solute means it is harder to things to leave the solution as there is a little physical barrier

29

boiling point elevation

solute blocks the solvent molecules from reading the surface so it takes more heat to get them to escape the phase

30

freezing point depression

solute makes the solvent molecules collide less frequently

31

draw a phase diagram of what happens when something is dissolved in somethinf

lines shift to become smaller?

32

osmotic pressure

either can be that the solvent molecules move in opposite directions so no net osmosis or solvent flows resulting in net osmosis ??

33

suspension

when solute particles are large, it is called a suspension or a colloid. suspension is when particles settle out over time

34

colloid

when solute particles are large, it is called a suspension sion or a colloid. colloid is when particles evenly mix

35

best way to increase solubility of gas?

decrease temp and increase the partial pressure of the gas