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1

see last deck for colligative properties

okayt

2

isotonic

concentration inside equals outside

3

hypotonic

high concentrations of solute inside cell so water flows in

4

hypertonic

concentration of solute is greater outside cell so it leaves

5

suspension

particles settle out

6

colloids

particles don't settle out

7

surfactant

hydrophilic head with a hydrophobic tail

8

monolayer

one layer of surfactant

9

micelles

nonpolar tails surround with polar heads sticking out. helps dissolve stuff AKA soap

10

vesicles

polar inside, non polar facing each other and then polar heads facing outside again

11

cell membrane

phospholipid bilayer. polar phospholipid head with 2 lipid tails that are hydrophobic

12

supersaturated solutions

more than can dissolve, very unstable

13

reaction mechanisms

the pathway that the materials follow while becoming products. can be unimolec, with one reactant, bi with two tri with three

14

elementary reaction

one step of a mechanism

15

mechanism

has multiple elementary reactions

16

intermediate

appears between steps and not in products

17

reaction rate

number of molecules reacting per second.

18

rate determining step

slowest elementary reaction

19

rate units

molarity per second

20

as you go on with reactions, rate

decreases as there are fewer reactant molecules present. fewer collisions occur. the rate per collision is constant

21

High conc, hi molecules, hi collisions

hi rate

22

Twice as many NO moles

number of collisions doubles compared to just NO one mol

23

overall order

sum of exponents

24

Rate laws mirror the reactions stoichiometry for

rate- limiting steps

25

first order reaction

Ln(A0/A)= kt

ln of A vs t is straight

26

second order reactiona

1/A-1/A0 = kt

graph of 1/a vs t gives a line with slope k

27

zero order reactions

A= -kt+ A0

graph of A vs t gives a line

28

slopes are equal to

k

29

half life of first order reaction

ln2/K

30

half life is independent of A0 in

first order reactions

31

energy profile for unimolecular reactions

fragmentation is when the products is higher than reactants

rearrangement is when the energy rises but still releases

32

energy profile for bimolecular reactions

energy rises then falls, still releases

33

activated complex

AKA THE TRANSITION STATE. TOP O FTHE GRAPH

34

RATE increases with

temperatrue

35

Arrhenius equation

Ln (K2/K1) = - Ea/ R(1/t2 - 1/T1)

T in kelvin

R is 8.314 j since it is about activation energy!!

36

catalysts

INCREASE RATES OF REACTION

37

homo and hetero catalyst

same vs different phase of reactant

38

in equilibrium

rates of forward and reverse reactions are equal NOT CONCENTRATIONS

39

can be Keq or Kp

okay

40

Keq

describes concenreatrions of reactants and products when the NET rate of reaction is zero

41

Q

products over reactants. tells you which way equilibrium shifts

42

when the reaction is reversed

K IS INVERSE NOT -VE

43

converting between Kp and Kc

Kp= Kc (RT)^ delta N of gas

R is 0.0821

T in K

Delta n is # of moles of gas in products- number of moles of gas. can be -ve

44

what is not in equilibrium

pure liquids and solids

45

if K is huge

then reaction is basically completion

46

if K is small

it basically doesn't occur

47

increase in pressure

shifts to side with less gas moles

48

K varies only with

temperature.

49

what happens to k with for endothermic reaction when you add heat

K eq increases, shifts to produce less heat

50

what happens to k with for exothermic reaction when you add heat

K eq decreases, shifts to side with less heat

51

to prove X is negligble

put initial concentration over K and if its over 1000 , its negligble

52

if K is very large

reaction goes to nearly completion so X is ALL final concentration

53

strong acids

Her, HI, HCLO4, Hal, HNO3, N2SO4

54

strong bases

group ! and 2 OH and CaOH, Sr OH and BaOh

55

strong acids and bases K

dissociate. very large K

have Ka and Kb

make Oh or H3O

56

solubility equilibrium

ksp

usually makes solid

57

complexation equilibrium

Kf

58

weak acids

Ka