Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (58)

Loading flashcards...

1

## see last deck for colligative properties

### okayt

2

## isotonic

### concentration inside equals outside

3

## hypotonic

### high concentrations of solute inside cell so water flows in

4

## hypertonic

### concentration of solute is greater outside cell so it leaves

5

## suspension

### particles settle out

6

## colloids

### particles don't settle out

7

## surfactant

### hydrophilic head with a hydrophobic tail

8

## monolayer

### one layer of surfactant

9

## micelles

### nonpolar tails surround with polar heads sticking out. helps dissolve stuff AKA soap

10

## vesicles

### polar inside, non polar facing each other and then polar heads facing outside again

11

## cell membrane

### phospholipid bilayer. polar phospholipid head with 2 lipid tails that are hydrophobic

12

## supersaturated solutions

### more than can dissolve, very unstable

13

## reaction mechanisms

### the pathway that the materials follow while becoming products. can be unimolec, with one reactant, bi with two tri with three

14

## elementary reaction

### one step of a mechanism

15

## mechanism

### has multiple elementary reactions

16

## intermediate

### appears between steps and not in products

17

## reaction rate

### number of molecules reacting per second.

18

## rate determining step

### slowest elementary reaction

19

## rate units

### molarity per second

20

## as you go on with reactions, rate

### decreases as there are fewer reactant molecules present. fewer collisions occur. the rate per collision is constant

21

## High conc, hi molecules, hi collisions

### hi rate

22

## Twice as many NO moles

### number of collisions doubles compared to just NO one mol

23

## overall order

### sum of exponents

24

## Rate laws mirror the reactions stoichiometry for

### rate- limiting steps

25

## first order reaction

###
Ln(A0/A)= kt

ln of A vs t is straight

26

## second order reactiona

###
1/A-1/A0 = kt

graph of 1/a vs t gives a line with slope k

27

## zero order reactions

###
A= -kt+ A0

graph of A vs t gives a line

28

## slopes are equal to

### k

29

## half life of first order reaction

### ln2/K

30

## half life is independent of A0 in

### first order reactions

31

## energy profile for unimolecular reactions

###
fragmentation is when the products is higher than reactants

rearrangement is when the energy rises but still releases

32

## energy profile for bimolecular reactions

### energy rises then falls, still releases

33

## activated complex

### AKA THE TRANSITION STATE. TOP O FTHE GRAPH

34

## RATE increases with

### temperatrue

35

## Arrhenius equation

###
Ln (K2/K1) = - Ea/ R(1/t2 - 1/T1)

T in kelvin

R is 8.314 j since it is about activation energy!!

36

## catalysts

### INCREASE RATES OF REACTION

37

## homo and hetero catalyst

### same vs different phase of reactant

38

## in equilibrium

### rates of forward and reverse reactions are equal NOT CONCENTRATIONS

39

## can be Keq or Kp

### okay

40

## Keq

### describes concenreatrions of reactants and products when the NET rate of reaction is zero

41

## Q

### products over reactants. tells you which way equilibrium shifts

42

## when the reaction is reversed

### K IS INVERSE NOT -VE

43

## converting between Kp and Kc

###
Kp= Kc (RT)^ delta N of gas

R is 0.0821

T in K

Delta n is # of moles of gas in products- number of moles of gas. can be -ve

44

## what is not in equilibrium

### pure liquids and solids

45

## if K is huge

### then reaction is basically completion

46

## if K is small

### it basically doesn't occur

47

## increase in pressure

### shifts to side with less gas moles

48

## K varies only with

### temperature.

49

## what happens to k with for endothermic reaction when you add heat

### K eq increases, shifts to produce less heat

50

## what happens to k with for exothermic reaction when you add heat

### K eq decreases, shifts to side with less heat

51

## to prove X is negligble

### put initial concentration over K and if its over 1000 , its negligble

52

## if K is very large

### reaction goes to nearly completion so X is ALL final concentration

53

## strong acids

### Her, HI, HCLO4, Hal, HNO3, N2SO4

54

## strong bases

### group ! and 2 OH and CaOH, Sr OH and BaOh

55

## strong acids and bases K

###
dissociate. very large K

have Ka and Kb

make Oh or H3O

56

## solubility equilibrium

###
ksp

usually makes solid

57

## complexation equilibrium

### Kf

58