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Flashcards in Ch. 13 Deck (33)
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1

The energy released by oxidizing glucose is saved in the high-energy bonds of

ATP and other activated carrier molecules

2

Sugars derived from food are broken down by

glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation

3

Which of the following describes a breakdown process in which enzymes degrade complex molecules into simpler ones?

Catabolism

4

Which of the following locations is NOT used for the digestion of polymeric food molecules into monomeric subunits? A. Extracellular space (the lumen of intestines, for example) B. The cytosol of a cell C. Lysosomes

B. The cytosol of a cell

5

Where does the oxidative breakdown of food molecules occur in a eukaryotic cell?

Mitochondria

6

Which of the following generates the largest amount of ATP? A. Glycolysis B. The citric acid cycle C. The electron transport chain

C. The electron transport chain

7

The end products of glycolysis are:

pyruvate, ATP, and NADH

8

Which of the following is NOT required for glycolysis to occur? A. NAD+ B. ATP C. O2 D. ADP

O2

9

.How much ATP must be invested during the first part of glycolysis for each molecule of glucose broken down?

2 ATP

10

.From one glucose molecule, how much net energy (in the form of ATP and NADH) is produced during glycolysis?

2 ATP, 2 NADH

11

The synthesis of ATP in glycolysis occurs by:

substrate-level phosphorylation

12

For many anaerobic microorganisms, which metabolic pathway is the principle source of ATP? A. Glycolysis B. The citric acid cycle C. The electron transport chain

Glycolysis

13

Under anaerobic conditions, which metabolic pathway regenerates the supply of NAD+ for glycolysis? A. The citric acid cycle B. The formation of acetyl CoA C. Fermentation D. The electron transport chain

Fermentation

14

What does it mean for a bond to be “high energy,” such as between phosphate groups in ATP?

The hydrolysis of such a bond is particularly energetically favorable.

15

Which of the following is true? A. Sugars are converted to Acetyl CoA in the mitochondria; fats are converted to Acetyl CoA in the cytosol. B. Fats are converted to Acetyl CoA in the mitochondria; sugars are converted to Acetyl CoA in the cytosol. C. Sugars and fats are both converted to Acetyl CoA in the mitochondria. D. Sugars are converted to Acetyl CoA but fats are not.

C. Sugars and fats are both converted to Acetyl CoA in the mitochondria.

16

When fatty acids are oxidized to acetyl CoA, each cycle of the reaction removes how many carbon atoms from the fatty acid molecule?

2

17

Although the citric acid cycle itself does not use O2, it requires a functioning electron transport chain (which uses O2) in order to regenerate which molecule for further use in the citric acid cycle? A. NADH B. NAD+ C. H2O D. ATP E. ADP

B. NAD+

18

The citric acid cycle converts the carbon atoms in acetyl CoA to which of the following? A. Pyruvate B. Citrate C. CO2 D. CH4

CO2

19

.Intermediates formed in glycolysis and the citric acid cycle are used by the cell to synthesize: A. (A) amino acids. B. (B) nucleotides. C. (C) lipids. D. All of the above E. A and B, but not C

amino acids. nucleotides. lipids

20

The NADH generated during glycolysis feeds its high energy electrons to:

the electron transport chain.

21

In eukaryotic cells, what is the final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain?

O2

22

In the electron transport chain, the oxygen atoms in O2 become part of which of the following molecules?

H2O molecules

23

The complete oxidation of glucose to H2O and CO2 produces about how many molecules of ATP per molecule of glucose?

30

24

T or F: Metabolism can be tightly regulated because the substrates involved in these reactions are each recognized by a single, unique enzyme.

False

25

What does the term gluconeogenesis refer to?

The synthesis of glucose from small organic molecules such as pyruvate

26

In humans and other mammals, gluconeogenesis occurs mainly in which type of cells?

Liver cells

27

After a normal overnight fast, most of the acetyl CoA entering the citric acid cycle is derived from what type of molecule?

Fatty acids

28

In plants, fats and starch are stored in which part of the cell?

Chloroplast

29

When nutrients are plentiful, plants can store glucose as:

Starch

30

When food is plentiful, animals can store glucose as:

glycogen