Ch 13 Flashcards Preview

Immunology > Ch 13 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch 13 Deck (82):
1

how do we remain healthy?

communication of cells and molecules of immune system
mucosal responses
vaccination

2

what do immature dendritic cells do

encounter pathogen and migrate to lymph node where acts as a chemical messengers for B and T cells

3

what do leukocytes do

constantly monitor

4

lymphatic and cardiovascular circulation systems do

migration of WBC controlled by chemokines and cell adhesion molecules

5

cell surface expression up or down regulated based on stimulatory signal
stabilize weak interaction of pMHC with TCRs
determine WBC migration

adhesion molecules

6

four groups of adhesion molecules

selectins
addressins
integrine
supergene family

7

what are distress signals

cytokines and chemokines

8

leukocyte migration to inflammation

extravasation

9

what are the three responses to infectious agents

humoral responses
cell-mediated responses
microbial evasion

10

humoral response:
direct lysis of microbial cells through MAC
generation of complement fragments to heighten immune activity

activation of complement

11

inflammation by attracting and activating leukocytes

C3a
C4a
C5a

12

opsonins

C3b
C4b

13

humoral response:
serve as opsonins
antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity
IgE
inhibit entry of microbes by neutralization

adaptive

14

release of inflammatory mediators by mast cells and basophils

IgE

15

what are the two things of the humoral response

activation of complement
adaptive

16

what are the two things of the cell-mediated response

intracellular microbes
localization determines type of cell-mediated response

17

cell-mediated response:
viruses
bacteria in endosomes
not everything in endosomes remain there

intracellular microbes

18

cytosol
cytotoxic t responses
endosomes
delayed type hypersensitivity response

localization determines type of cell-mediated response

19

processed there and presented by MHC II, CD4+ t cell response

endosomes

20

processed and presented on MHC I, CD8+ t cell response

cytosol

21

type of endosome

delayed type hypersensitivity

22

type of cytosol

cytotoxic t responses

23

Pathogens taken advantage of local environment and can evade responses, so immune system what

Must be versatile

24

Starts with innate immune system
Infected cells produce type I interferons (alpha and beta)
Nk cells detect distress molecules and bind and kill those cells leading to reduced MHC I expression
Phagocytize cells lead to activation of adaptive response

Viruses

25

Two types of phagocytic cells leads to activation of adaptive response

Clearance of active infections
Inhibition of subsequent infections

26

Phagocytic cells lead to activation of adaptive response
Cell mediated response
Death generates cell debris, processed and presented by MHC II both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are generated

Clearance of active infections

27

Phagocytic cell leads to activation of adaptive response
Generation of neutralizing antibodies

Inhibition of subsequent infections

28

Bacteria can gain what type of access

Intracellular

29

Bacteria that is Extracellular is composed of what three things

Complement
Antibodies
Phagocytes

30

Extracellular microbes are accessible to what

Complement
Antibodies
Phagocytes

31

What are examples of Extracellular bacteria

Staphylococcus
Streptococcus
Bordetella
Yersinia
E. coli
Neisseria

32

What are examples of intracellular bacteria

Mycobacteria
Shigella
Salmonella
Listeria
Rickettsia
E. coli

33

Have several mechanisms to counter attempts by phagocytes to destroy them after ingestion

Intracellular bacteria

34

What does intracellular bacteria have to do with regarding phagocytes complement and antibodies

Usually occurs in phagocytes where antibodies and complement cannot access

35

How does clearance require adaptive cell mediated response

Earliest is DTH by CD4+ T cells
CD40/CD40L engagement and IFN-gamma promotes destructive phagocytic activity
IL-12 produced by phagocytes boast activity of Nk cells increasing IFN gamma

36

Permits proteasomal degradation and production of bacteria lily derived peptide fragments loaded onto MHC I for surface presentation of CD8+ T cells

Cytosolic presence of intracellular bacteria

37

Has to do with CTL response
Antibody activation is important for prevention of reinfection

Cytosolic presence of intracellular bacteria

38

Can be intracellular or Extracellular

Protozoa

39

Antibodies mostly optimization and phagocytosis

Extracellular Protozoa

40

CD4+ and CD8+ T cells responses

Intracellular Protozoa

41

Examples of Protozoa

Plasmodium
Toxoplasma

42

Examples of fungi

Candida
Histoplasma
Aspergillosis

43

Inflammatory cell mediated DTH primary mechanism

Fungi

44

What type of antibodies are not very effective

Antiquing all

45

Tapeworms
Flukes

Flatworms

46

Hookworms
Nematodes
Ascaris

Roundworms

47

IgE mediated type I hypersensitivity
Cell mediated DTH both cause infection at infection
IgG and IgA turn into ADCC

Flatworms and hookworms

48

Have several routes by which they can evade immune responses generated against them

Infectious agents

49

Types of evasion

Genetic drift
Genetic shift
Prevent detection
Resist complement
Stealth
Camouflage

50

Types of disruption

Alter pH
Inhibit fusion of phagolysosome
Disrupt presentation by MHC I

51

What does destruction destroy

Leukocyte so

52

Types of genetic drift

Influenza
HIV

53

Frequent incorporation of random mutations into epitope

Genetic drift

54

Types of genetic shift

Influenza

55

Viruses from different species infect same cell

Genetic shift

56

Prevent detection
Genetic drift
Genetic shift
Alteration of surface antigens
Resist attachment of complement or MAC
Hiding by infecting RBCs
Disguise as host cells

Evasion

57

Secretion of agents that interfere with immune response
Mycobacteria alter phagolysosomal pH
Legionella inhibit phagocytes fusion
Inhibit development of CD8+ T cell responses by disrupting presentation of fragments by MHC I
Secretion of enzymes that degrade Ig or complement
Secrete mediators that inhibit activities of local leukocyte a

Disruption

58

Death of host immune cells
Once lost individuals susceptible to various opportunistic infections lead to death

Destruction

59

Cardinal signs of inflammation

Swelling
Redness
Warmth
Pain

60

Edema tumor
Changes in vascular permeability

Swelling

61

Rubor
Increased blood flow

Redness

62

Calor
Increased blood flow

Warmth

63

Dalor
Release of chemical mediators by mast cells basophils and eosinophils

Pain

64

Immune responses contributing to inflammation

Chemo attraction and activation of neutrophils, phagocytes, and lymphocytes
Complement activation
Degranulation of mast cells, basophils, and eosinophils
Heightened NK activity
Increased body temperature
Increased vascular permeability
Infiltration of tissues by fluids and cells
Secretion of acute phase proteins
Secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines
Secretion of type I interferons

65

Slightly different from parenteral
MALT
M cells sample antigens within intestinal lumen
Lamina propria contains peters patches, b and T cells, dendritic cells, macrophages
Epithelial layer cells express both MHC I and II act as APCs and secrete cytokines to diminish inflammatory response

Mucosal immunity

66

Intentional inoculation with cowpox protected against smallpox

Edward Jenner

67

Established specific microbes cause specific diseases

Robert Koch and Louis Pasteur

68

What are the characteristics of vaccines

Effective protection against intended pathogen without significant danger of causing disease
Long lasting protection
Must induce immune response
Production of neutralizing antibodies
Economically feasible
Stable for storage, transport and use

69

Types of vaccines

Live
Attenuated
Killed
Extract
Recombinant
DNA

70

What is the best type of vaccines
Second best
Third and fourth

Live
Attenuated
Killed and extracts

71

Based on living organisms capable of normal infection and replication
Not appropriate for virulent pathogens

Live vaccines

72

Based on living organisms with reduced virulence and replica illite
Typically cause mild or subclinical illnesses
Carry risk of mutation possibly to revert to wild type

Attenuated vaccine

73

Organisms that are dead due to treatment with chemicals or heat
Inactivated toxins or toxoids
Incapable of causing infection, replication but provoke immunity

Killed vaccines

74

Do not contain whole organisms but are composed of materials isolated from disrupted and Lynsey organisms
Provide protection for virulent organisms that don't want to risk an organism may be alive
Anthrax vaccine

Extract vaccine

75

Creation of organisms to remove genes to impair virulence and or replication
Can infect host cells, may proliferate, but a not induce disease

Recombinant vaccines

76

Host is injected with naked DNA extracted from pathogen
DNA often engineered to remove some genes critical to disease development

DNA vaccines

77

What type of diseases lack effective vaccines

HIV
AIDS
Malaria

78

Substances that heighten immune response
Oily medium to prolong dispersal
Provokes inflammation that attracts phagocytes and accelerates activation and antigen presentation to T cells
Pertussis component in DTP vaccine
BCG mycobacterial component that is not routinely used for human vaccines

Adjuvants

79

Can be transferred between individuals

Passive immunity

80

Individual receiving antibody did not make own immune response to pathogen
Quick short lived limited

Passive immunity

81

Natural infection

Active immunity

82

Production of ones own immunity
Slower long lived renewable

Active immunity