Ch 13 - Skeletal System Vocab Flashcards Preview

OTA 102 - Ch 13 Skeletal & Muscular Systems > Ch 13 - Skeletal System Vocab > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch 13 - Skeletal System Vocab Deck (15)
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1

Bones

Composed of dense connective tissue including bone cells in a matrix of the mineral calcium and collagen fibers, and include a rich supply of blood vessels and nerves.

2

Osteocytes

New bone cells, important to the healing process of bone.

3

Osteogenesis

Process of constant new bone cell creation; new cells replace older or damaged ones. Activities such as weight bearing and muscle contractions therefore help bones remain strong or become stronger.

4

Skeletal system

Provides protection, movement and a framework for the body. The Cranium works to protect the brain; the Vertebral Column to protect the spinal cord; and the Thorax to protect the chest organs.

5

Hematopoiesis

Production of red and white blood cells within the bone marrow.

6

Essential minerals

Stored by bones; include calcium, phosphorus and magnesium. Largely responsible for providing bones with strength and hardness, as well as nerve and muscle function. These minerals are released from bones when needed in the blood and can lead to inadequate amounts if not replenished (such as in osteoporosis).

7

Osteoporosis

Loss of bone mass due to decreased minerals (and therefore bone strength & density) in the bones. Creates greater risk of fractures, especially in hip and vertebral column. Risk factors include menopause, advanced age, sendentary lifestyle, high protein intake, prolonged use of some meds and some endocrine diseases.

8

Tendons

"MUSCLE TO BONE" Cords of fibrous connective tissue that attach muscles to bones. Do not contract or lengthen when muscles do, but help to enable bone's movement.

9

Aponeurosis

Tendon that attaches to a larger area of bone; flat or ribbonlike, and larger than a typical tendon

10

Ligaments

"BONE TO BONE" Bands or sheets of strong, fibrous connective tissue that connect bones to other bones across joints. Provide joint stability and limit joint motion. Hold joints together, allowing attached muscles to move bones while preventing the joint from falling apart.

11

Joint (and Types)

Place where two bones meet; There are three types of joints called "articulations":
1. Synarthrosis: immovable joint, such as sutures of skull
2. Amphiarthrosis: slightly moveable joint, such as vertebra
3. Diarthrosis (or Synovial): freely moveable joint, such as hip joint

12

Range of motion (ROM)

Motion allowed by Diarthrotic/Synovial joints, allowing great deal of movement. Example: shoulder joint allows the arm 180 degree range of motion, and knee can bend 130 degrees.

13

Goniometer

Measuring device to determine the amount of range of motion (ROM) at a joint.

14

Types of Range of Motion

ROM: Basic range of motion of a joint
AROM: Active Range of Motion; involving movement as far as it will go without assistance.
AAROM: Active Assistive Range of Motion; how much the part moves with assistance
PROM: Passive Range of Motion; how much the joint moves when the person is completely relaxed and someone else moves the part entirely

15

Osteoarthritis

Also called Degenerative Joint Disease (DJD). Disorder of the synovial joints, which are joints containing a joint capsule: articular cartilage, synovial fluid, and synovial membrane. Affects large weight-bearing joints such as the hip and knee, where deterioration causes bone ends to rub together. Increased risk with obesity, age and overuse.