Ch 2 Cells involved in Immune Responses Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 2 Cells involved in Immune Responses Deck (60):
1

what are the pro B cell surface markers?

CD 43, CD19, CD20

2

what are the pre B cell surface markers?

CD 43, CD19, CD20, pre-BCR, cytoplasmic u chain

3

what are the surface markers for immature naive B cells?

CD19, CD20, IgM

4

what are the surface markers for a mature naive B cell?

CD19, CD20, IgM, IgD

5

what stage of B cell development does RAG and TdT perform their actions?

Pro

6

what stage of B cell development hosts heavy chain rearrangement? Light chain?

Pro; pre (k or lambda)

7

what chemokine is expressed on naive mature B cells and what attracts that to the lymph node?

CXCL5 on B cells; CXCL13 gradient created by follicular DC in lymph node follicles

8

where does class switching and somatic hypermutation take place?

germinal centers of lymph node follicles

9

what survival factor maintains plasma cells?

BAFF

10

what survival factor maintains memory B cells?

BCL2

11

what process determines if an Ig is membrane bound or secreted?

alternative splicing of primary mRNA transcript; transmembrane and cytoplasmic exons remain in for membrane-bound; spliced out for secreted

12

what are the survival signals for B cells in the periphery and their receptors?

BAFF, BLYSS, APRIL. Receptors: BR3, TACI (early on), BCMA (later)

13

what are B1 cells?

innate; T cell independent; produce natural antibodies of low affinity that respond to microbes and lipids; found in peritoneal cavity and fetus

14

what are marginal zone B cells?

T cell independent; first responders to polysaccharide antigens (develop by 2 years of age...why infants have poor polysaccharide responses)

15

what are B2 cells?

conventional or follicular B cells, including memory B cells and plasma cells; adaptive; T cell dependent; protein antigens

16

what is the name of the molecule that commits T cells to develop?

Notch

17

what chemokine is expressed by naive T cells and what is the chemokine gradient in nodes?

CCR7 directed by CCL19/21 in perifollicular T cell zone (produced by stromal cells in T cell zone); DC in T cell zone express CCL19 and CCL18 (binds to CCR3 on naive T cells)

18

what are markers of central memory T cells?

CD45RA-, CD27+, CCR7+, CD62L+; effector memory T cells lack all aforementioned markers and home to the peripheral sites

19

expression of what draws T cells out of lymph node and back into circulation?

SIP1 via sphingosine-1-phosphate concentration gradient; SIP1 is internalized if T cell binds cognate MHC

20

describe intrinsic pathway of lymphocyte apoptosis

intracellular stress-> Bim -> Bax/BAK-> cytochrome C-> caspase 9 -> caspase 3; Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL inhibits Bax/BAK

21

desribe extrinsic pathway of lymphocyte apoptosis

lethal ligands and/or repeated lymphocyte activation leads to binding FasL (CD178) to Fas (CD95) -> caspase 8 -> caspase 3

22

which cell is CD14++; CD16-

monocytes; CD14 is part of TLR4 and LPS receptor

23

what are chemokines that attract monocytes to lungs?

CCL2, 3, 4 & 5

24

what do macrophages typically express on their surface

CD14, CD16, CD11b/18 (Mac-1), CD33 and CD 36

25

CD 14

highly expressed on monocytes and macrophages; part of TLR4; binds LPS and activates innate immune responses

26

what cytokine promotes granuloma formation and what cell secretes it?

TNFa; secreted by macrophages

27

what disease process leads to uncontrolled activation of macrophages?

hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH)

28

what are criteria for HLH?

fever, splenomegaly, elevated ferritin (>500), cytopenia of >2 cell lines, hypertriglyceridemia or hypofibrinogenemia, hemophagocytosis on smear/bone marow, hepatitis, low NK cells, soluble CD25 (IL2 R) >2400

29

what virus leads to fatal HLH? and in what immunodeficiency? What is the mutation?

EBV leads to fatal HLH in boys with XLP; mutation is SH2D1A-> encodes SAP protein

30

what are distinguishing markers for plasmacytoid DCs?

CD 123 (lack CD11c); conventional have CD11c, CD1, CD13, CD14; Langerhans and insterstitial dendritic cells also epxress CD11c

31

what is CD1? what chromosome is it mapped to?

MHC-like molecules that present non-peptide antigens (lipids) to T cells; maps to MHC locus on chromosome 15

32

what immunohistochemical staining would identify Langerhans histiocytosis?

CD1a; CD207

33

True or False: FCeR1 is expressed on mast cells, basophils and eosinophils?

False; not expressed on eos

34

which cell produces PGD2 when activated? and what is the function?

mast cells (not basos or eos); bronchocontriction; vasodilation and increased permeability; LTB4 is also unique to mast cells and is a neutrophil and T cell chemoattractant

35

which cell produces PGE2 when activated?

eos (not basos or mast cells); opposite effect of PGD2; inhibits 5 lipoxygenase activation

36

what lipid mediators are common to mast cells, basos and eos?

LTC4, LTD4, LTE4; also PAF; thromboxane is made by mast cells and eos, but not basos

37

what is c-kit? what is its receptor? what is a pharmacologic target for this?

c-kit is a proto-oncogene; binds kit receptor; imatinib targets

38

what are the mast cell preformed mediators

histamine, tryptase, chymase, carboxypeptidase, cathepsin G

39

where can you find MCtc?

think connective tissue; skin, intestinal and respiratory SUBmucosa, conjunctiva, blood vessels, synovium

40

where can you find MCt?

alveolar and GI mucosa

41

what is the low-affinity IgE receptor?

FcERII; CD 23

42

what allergen has been shown to cleave CD23?

Der-p-1; cleaves from cell surface which serves to increase the production of allergen specific IgE

43

what % reduction is needed in IgE to see clinical efficacy with omalizumab? What is omalizumab?

96% reduction (may take many months; IgG to IgE

44

describe the FCeRI complex?

Can exist as tetramer (a (binds the Fc portion of IgE), b and 2 y chains (main signaling component) or trimer (a and 2 y chains)

45

what is a key receptor that distinguishes MCtc from MCt?

C5a receptor (CD88)

46

what is an important growth factor for basophils?

IL-3 (binds to IL-3R aka CD123)

47

what are the markers measured for basophil activation test?

CD203c; CD 63

48

what is the transcription factor for eos development and what brings them to tissue?

GATA1; CCL-5 (Rantes) and CCL11 (eotaxin1) and CCL24 (eotaxin2)

49

what factors are known to suppress eosinophilia?

bacterial and viral infections (except HIV), fever and steroids

50

what are neutrophil attractants?

CXCL8 (IL8) and LTB4 (also T cell chemotaxis)

51

which granules are enlarged in Chediak Higashi?

primary (azurophilic); contain MPO, defensins, cathelidins, cathepsin

52

what aspect of platelets are targeted by antibodies in ITP? TTP?

GP2b3a; ADAMTS13

53

what are the layers of the epidermis?

Basale, Spinosum, Granulosum, Lucidum, Corneum; Mnemonic: Before Signing Get Legal Counsel

54

what are key cytokines secreted by epithelial cells?

TSLP, IL33, GM-CSF, IL-25

55

what is the target antigen for pemphigus vulgaris? pemphigus foliaceous? Location?

IgG and IgM targeting Desmoglein 3; IgG to desmoglein 1; located in desmosome

56

what is the target antigen for bullous pemphigoid, including pemphigoid gestationis?

IgG (linear at BMZ) to BP 230 or BP180; located in hemidesmosome

57

what is the target antigen for dermatitis herpetiformis? what disease process?

granular IgA to transglutaminase; celiac (linear IgA is seen in IgA bullous dermatoses)

58

what is the CD nomenclature, adhesion molecule location, ligand and ligand location for E-, P- and L-selectin?

CD62E (endothelium), P (endothelium), L (leukocytes); Ligand for E and P = sialyl lewis x on leukocytes; L selectin binds Sialyl Lewis X on GlyCam1/MadCam1 on HEVs

59

what are the 3 key integrins for transmigration of leukocytes? what do they bind and where?

Integrins are all expressed on leukocytes; LFA1 (CD11aCD18) binds to ICAMs in endothelium; VLA4 binds to VCAMs in endothelium; A4b7 binds to MadCam1 in Gut epithelium

60

what does airway smooth muscle upregulate in steroid resistant asthma?

glucocorticoid receptor B (inhib receptor)