Flashcards in CH. 2 Development of Slavery in Mainland North America Deck (168)
What did the first colonists in Jamestown think about slavery?
wasn't on their minds
- none of early VA/MD settlers intended to import Africans for workforce
When did black slaves first start appearing in the Chesapeake Bay colonies?
middle of 17th century
- grew rapidly after 1680
- by early 1700s = over 50% of laborers in MD/VA were of African origin/enslaved
Why did black slavery suddenly become popular in VA/MD at the beginning of the 17th century?
English landowners found it difficult to find adequate labor force to grow tobacco
- white servitude worked alongside black slavery for a while
- black labor ultimately proved more economical/had fewer problems for landowners
Why is that black slavery in the English colonies seen as inevitable?
colonies part of growing Atlantic economic system
- economy moving towards production of staple crops for Euro market by 17th century
- economy relied on African chattel slavery to function
- MD/VA landowners just following conventional path of Atlantic colonial system
Why were black slaves preferred by settlers?
- could work them harder/control them more than European servants
- Africans relatively inexpensive compared to Euros (thus brought greater profits to landowners)
Why were the English so eager to establish Atlantic economic system overseas in the first place?
second chance at rivaling Spain for international dominance
- had failed previously when searching for precious metals + finding maritime shortcut to Asia
How did English colonization start?
sponsored by domestic investors as sailors went as far as East Indies/Ottoman Empire
- Spanish success in North America in staple producing agriculture inspired English
- colonial production of staples would create favorable balance of trade
- colonists w/ money could afford to purchase imported goods from England
- England gets exclusive trade to staple crops from overseas colonies
What was the main variation between the colonies?
items that were produced
- VA/MD = tobacco exclusively at first than diversified into cereal + livestock
- SC/GA = exported livestock + timber first than established rice + indigo plantations
- MS = French landowners failed to turn profit w/ rice/indigo
- Northern colonies = produced foodstuffs (fish) + very active in carrying trade
What did the commodities the different colonies were producing affect?
determined size/type of labor force that colonists required
Who did the mainland colonies have close ties to?
- slave ships serviced English island colonies as well as mainland
- islanders emigrated to mainland when economic opportunity seemed greater
- mainlanders especially attuned to Caribbean
What happened in the Caribbean Euro colonies by 1640?
transition from tobacco/cotton to sugar plantations
- English Barbados + French Martinique both made switch
- opted for African slave labor over white servants they'd been using before
- Jamaica + St. Domingue + English islands followed suit
What had happened by the last quarter of the 17th century in the Caribbean?
plantation model established "next door" to mainland North America
- still growing in other colonies up/down the Atlantic rim
- led to large amount of African slaves to be be imported to mainland colonies
How does Ira Berlin differ between societies w/ slaves vs slave societies?
societies w/ slaves = slavery just one form of labor among many
slave society = slavery stood at center of economic production
How does Berlin group Africans/African Americans?
chronologically by set of common experiences
- charter generations (first arrivals + their children + their grandchildren)
- plantation generations (who were forced to grow great staples)
- revolutionary generations (who faced resurgent slave regime)
What does Ira Berlin emphasize about the time of slavery?
- overriding importance of human toil in slavery's growth
- stresses effects of late 18th century Age of Revolution (roiled waters of American slavery)
What does Berlin say was the most consistent agitator of the waters of American slavery?
constant struggle between master/slave
- struggle persisted in every locale where slavery appeared
- was major force behind changing nature of slavery as an institution + African American society
What did the first settlers in colonial Virginia in 1607 come to be?
traders not planters
- initials investors in Virginia Company pictured warehouses filled w/ different commodities
- settlers turned to planting when they failed as traders
What made the transition from trading to planting easy for early settlers in Virginia?
accommodating surroundings (climate/soil/running water)
Who was the first settler to successfully grow tobacco in Virginia?
How was tobacco viewed at the time?
noxious weed by some but a commodity to the English
- English used it more than any other Europeans (thus brought a good price on exports)
- by 1617 = tobacco was dominant export from VA to England
How did England at first react to the need for more labor to tend to the tobacco fields in North America?
not worried (had plenty of domestic workers)
- English society = large domestic unemployment + dec. wages + general turmoil
- resulted in primarily young men to go overseas to work tobacco fields
How did poor white laborers get overseas to work if they couldn't afford the trip?
made deal w/ recruiters to repay their fare through work on land
- white laborers thus came mostly as servants/apprentices
- most served 5-7 yrs as indentured servants
What was the hope of many early English settlers when it came to finding labor to work tobacco fields?
hoped to develop good relations w/ Native Americans
- thought Natives would be open to being exposed to "English civilizing tendencies
- trade/military alliances already had formed between them
What happened on March 1622?
Powhatan confederacy launch surprise attack on several English colonies (results in 350 English deaths)
- caused English to have disdained image of Native people of the region
- idea of enslaving them grew popular among settlers
How did the attempted enslavement of Native Americans in the Chesapeake Bay fare?
- Native American lifestyle didn't fit w/ regimented cultivation of tobacco fields
- either ran away/balked at the work/died from strain
When did Africans first appear in Jamestown?
- seemed to fit colonial life better than Native Americans
- first arrivals were bound laborers similar to white servants before them
- still closer to slaves than indentured servants + served longer stints than whites
- conditions still better for them than plantation slavery to come century later
What were the first African arrivals to Jamestown like?
lives not significantly worse than English servants at the same place/time
- mostly Atlantic creoles familiar w/ Euro culture + Atlantic commerce system
- thus not at a disadvantage to white workers
What was something unusual about life for first black arrivals in Jamestown?
substantial # able to purchase freedom + enter class of small planters
- some even owned servants themselves
- 10 of 53 black men in Northampton County were free (owned land + grew crops + traded + argued in court etc.)
What were the experiences like for both black/white servants in the Chesapeake colonies?
neither pleasant nor rewarding
- most wanted to work off contract + earn a wage + obtain land/few servants + enter planter class
- many not able to achieve this goal
- servitude in North America not at all like in England
- planters extracted as much work out of servants as possible (far more than Englishmen accustomed to)
What was a consequence of landowners working their black/white servants so hard?
discipline was harsh + soon seen more as a commodity than a person
- not many servants lived long enough to fulfill planter ambitions
- many died of disease in first third of the century (no matter the race)
What was the state of the colonies in 1640?
- tobacco prices had been falling + wages remained low for first few decades of colonies
- large planters had already claimed most of the Tidewater land
- led to growing # of servants to not be able to purchase land after fulfilling contract
- caused growing unemployed/poor class of young men to emerge (similar to England) (resented wealthy)
- poor angry class seen as dangerous (all men in colonies were armed) (rebellion on the horizon)
What was Bacon''s Rebellion (1676)?
most well known poor class revolt against wealthy in North American colonies
How did landowners try to slow the growth of the poor class in the colonies?
- lengthening terms of servitude
- trying to pass laws preventing those w/o property from voting
- problem would remain
What was the consequence of imported white servitude to the colonies?
provided labor force but also a disruptive class of young men
What prevented the VA/MD colonies from claiming the white servants as chattel slaves to prevent rebellions?
cultural factors prevented it
- Euros okay killing each other in war but looked down on chattel slavery
What did landowners in the VA/MD colonies begin to realize in the 1670s?
switching to another form of servitude necessary to have greater control of labor force
- would need to get labor mostly outside of Europe
Other than fear of rebellion from young former servants what else dec. the # of imported English servants into the Chesapeake colonies?
- dec. # of young Englishmen available/willing to go overseas
- waning economic opportunity to be found in VA/MD to attract Englishmen
- competition from other new colonies for limited supply of white laborers
- awareness of imperial trends in labor acquisition around Atlantic
What caused the shortage of English migrants to America after 1630?
- dec. in English birth rates
- start of English Civil War
- rising real wages domestically after war dec. the poor class/# of unemployed willing to travel overseas
What were the effects of King William III's + Queen Anne's Wars on the # of English willing to go work overseas?
led potential servants to find military employment/take jobs abandoned by those in service
Why did economic opportunities in the Chesapeake dec. substantially after 1680?
long depression in tobacco market began in 1680
- made it more difficult for poor immigrants to acquire enough money to buy own land/labor
- opportunity appeared greater in NY + PA (young Englishmen willing to travel went here instead)
- some whites in VA/MD left to go to NY + PA
- more whites left Chesapeake colonies through 1690s than entered them
- by 1700 = white servant immigration not close to meeting labor demand
What was the response by the Chesapeake colonies to the labor shortage post 1700?
- still imported English criminals as indentured servants + southern Irish
- dec. in # of servants + large availability of Africans ultimately led MD/VA colonies to make switch to blacks
- surplus of Africans result of inc. carrying trade between Africa/Europe to Caribbean colonies
How were the new African laborers different than the first arrivals in Jamestown in the early 1600s?
not the Atlantic creoles from west-central Africa
- whites considered these new Africans from west Africa "outlandish"
- had traditional face paint/scars + resembled culture English found brutish
- were comparatively inexpensive to the creoles
Why were the new "outlandish" African slaves worked harder than white servants?
conventions that protected white servants from overwork didn't apply to Africans
What made full chattel slavery more attractive to Chesapeake settlers over the servant system before 1700?
settlers interested in building a family estate
- slaves + their children permanently bound
- theirs to work/sell as they choose
- VA/MD officially transforms from society w/ slaves to slave society
At what pace did the transition to slavery occur in the Tidewater?
- wealthy tobacco growers in York county bought Africans early (by 1680 4/5 laborers were black)
- more northern areas switched slower (African slave rush full steam ahead by 1695)
- Chesapeake planters had purchased 3000 African slaves by 1700
- 1700 = free whites still made up majority of tobacco labor but blacks quickly becoming laborers of choice
What was the trend of the early popularity of black Atlantic slave trade in the Chesapeake?
from 1700 = Atlantic trade most popular source of black labor until pop. could self sustain (would take a while)
Why did it take a while for the black slave pop. to be able to self sustain w/o needing to import more?
- mortality rates for "unseasoned" slaves still high in first two decades of 1700s
- men slave imports largely outpaced women slave imports (meant fewer offspring)
- planters saw no need to import women since they could get young African men for good price
- planters didn't encourage child birth (could hinder a women's slaves ability to work)
- gender balance finally came around 1740 when pop. could self sustain w/o more importation
What economic changes did the Chesapeake region go through in the 18th century?
tobacco sapped Tidewater soil of nutrients
- as pop. of planters grew in colonies this became problem as soil didn't have time to recover
- more planters began turning to grain production in 1750s/60s
- NC began to become more important in the region (slave economy emerging rapidly)
- Chesapeake colonies were most diversified economies on mainland by American Revolution
How did NC begin to grow in the 1750s in the Chesapeake?
economy grew rapidly
- rested on naval stores + lumber + grains + provisions
- imported bulk of slaves later than most of Chesapeake + more of them directly from Africa not Caribbean
What did all the Chesapeake colonies have in common by the 1750s?
nearly all work done by African slaves + their children
How did the slave trade begin to change in the Chesapeake in the later third of the 18th century?
slave trade began to level off but #s still staggeringly high
- 1690-1770 = 100,000 slaves imported to Chesapeake
What did the growth of black labor in the Chesapeake necessitate?
a legal basis for the institution
- long standing precedent irrelevant b/c English law didn't allow slavery
- economic/social pressures of English planters to create slavery to compete w/ other Europeans led to legal basis
- English landowners in Caribbean had already worked through legal difficulties of slavery fortunately
- VA/MD looked to Barbados/Jamaica for legal precedent for slave codes
What was the legal framework around slaves before the explosion in their pop.?
Tidewater legislators didn't bother to codify slavery
- blacks/whites shared same escapades/punishments
What started happening involving the legal rights of blacks in the middle of the 17th century?
judges/lawmakers started to strip rights of African immigrants
- 1640s = blacks in MD lose right to bear arms
- 1640s (VA) + 1660s (MD) = black women included in list of tithable
- 1660s = MD/VA gave stiff punishment between biracial fornication
What did VA pass in 1669?
an act about the casual killing of slaves
- state recognized they must make slaves fear for their lives to make them work to best ability
- law said that death of slave from master will not result in felony charges
What happened to blacks who had gained their freedom before the legal framework around slavery?
lived normally like they had til about 1670
- by 1680 blacks had been stripped of most of their remaining rights
- biggest loss was no longer had the right to own property
Why was the loss of the right to property considered the biggest loss to slaves?
for everyone in colonial America property was the dream
- in property all persons had legal rights that gave them confidence in dealing w/ others + underlying self respect
- taking away property right took away their ability to accumulate wealth + participate in quest for betterment
- undermined the possibility of blacks to have success in personal relations
What was life like for blacks in the Chesapeake colonies before slavery became popular?
blacks scattered broadly among white servants/free men
- public contacts w/ as many whites as blacks
- little segregation based on race
- seldom lived on farms w/ more than a dozen workers
- only a few lived w/ a handful of slaves
What did the inc. in slaves after 1700 do to the Chesapeake colonies society?
three level society created (based on land + slave holdings)
- most landowners lived on small farms (have a slave or two but family members did most of work)
- middle level of landowners who owned a few slaves (aspired to be big planters)
- middle level = economically/socially transient group (either middle moved up/overreached + moved down)
- largest planters (smallest class) = eventually owned nearly all slaves in the two colonies (MD/VA)
- largest planters = hired overseers from group of young landless white men to harshly discipline slaves
How did slaves + farms + crops change in Chesapeake society post 1700?
fell into distinct spacial arrangements
- largest plantations = tobacco holdings along Chesapeake Bay
- wealth/slaves concentrated in these tobacco core regions in both MD + VA
- around periphery grain farming + livestock were primary economic activities (smaller land/fewer slaves)
How were slaves housed in the Chesapeake colonies?
did not live in single group communal quarters
- planters often housed slaves in small clusters of dwellings around their holdings
- this dispersed cattle/hogs + put laborers close to the fields they worked
- MD = typical dwelling housed 4-5 men/women field hands + 1-2 women for cooking/cleaning/childcare
How did the establishment of black slavery in the Chesapeake colonies change every facet of society through the 18th century?
- blacks made up nearly 40% of each colonies population by 1780
- VA legislators created more restrictive rules as slave pop. grew
- use of overseer + private slave catchers
- reliance on white pop. to guard against runaways
- eventually moved towards use of militias
What were the early slave patrols like in the Chesapeake colonies?
often consisted of cross sections of white society (not just lower class)
What was the opposite effect that came with the growth of black slavery in the Chesapeake colonies?
almost complete disappearance of free blacks
- made up less than 5% of Chesapeake pop. by American Revolution
What makes up the Low Country in the US?
modern day Florida + Georgia + South Carolina
What was the first European nation to colonize the Low Country?
- also first to introduce African slaves to Low Country
How did African slaves participate in the early parts of the Low Country during Spanish rule?
worked on the building/fortification of St. Augustine in FL
- would help build stone fortresses in 1672 to protect Spanish from pirates/other Euro nations
- 1683 = 6 black/mulatto officers + 42 soldiers part of St. Augustine black militia
Why did the African slave pop. in the Low Country remain relatively small during Spanish rule?
St. Augustine functioned to protect Spain's shipping passing between colonies + mother country
- did not grow staple crops for exports like most American settlements
Why was St. Augustine + the Spanish controlled Low Country a thorn in the side of Britain?
wanted to create slave based plantation economy in southern mainland post 1670
- King Charles of Spain freed black slaves escaping from British colonies if they made it to FL outposts
- Spanish Florida became refuge for men/women slaves from British plantations
- at first Spanish authorities reneged on refuge promises + resold blacks back to slavery to profit poor colony
- post 1738 = St. Augustine governor reinforced crown's refuge orders
What was the effect of the reinstatement of the refuge orders by the new St. Augustine governor after 1738?
1738 = 38 blacks refugees + black militia captain (Fransisco Menendez) establish first free black town
- located 2 mi from St. Augustine
- named village Gracia Real de Santa Teresa de Mose
- abandoned then rebuilt + occupied until Spanish lost FL to English in 1763
What was the importance of Gracia Real?
- drew slaves from England's southernmost colonies
- some slaves fleeing from SC + GA (differed from Spanish FL + English Chesapeake colonies)
What region was considered the hub of Britain's American empire?
- made up of British sugar islands of Jamaica + Barbados + Leeward Islands
- economy/society would inspire ones established in SC + GA colonies
Where did most of the early GA/SC British settlers come from?
Barbados + sugar islands (not British Isles)
- came intent on producing for English market but Low Country was not a tobacco friendly environment
What did the early economy of GA/SC focus on since tobacco couldn't be grown there?
concentrated on providing sustenance for themselves
- produced livestock + timber for the English settlers in the Caribbean
- exported deerskins to the mother country
- eventually turned almost exclusively to rice production
Why were the first SC settlers so supportive of black labor to work fields so early into the colony?
black slave labor had already been thriving on sugar plots of Barbados since 1640s
- many early SC authorities were in the slave trade + been successful in sugar production in Caribbean
What was the makeup of slaves in early SC?
mostly Atlantic creoles
- persons of African descent became pop. majority in Low Country colonies after a generation
- extension of coastal Carolina would thus mean spread of slave based economy/society regardless
What was an important distinction to make between the Low Country + Chesapeake?
- Low Country = subtropical + humid + more like British West Indies
What did the environment in the Low Country mean for early Africans imported in?
- Africans who'd developed malaria/yellow fever immunities had advantages over masters
- Africans = whether they came from West Indies/Africa they were already used to climate/growing conditions
- meant Africans in early days had other value besides labor (husbandry + technical know how)
- English masters more dependent on slaves than other regions
What were the first 30 years of the SC colony like?
From establishment in 1670 to 1700 incorporated a lot of Barbados + British culture
- settlers from both places
- economy began to provide Barbados w/ provisions
- model life of SC landowner same as English gentleman in Barbados
What was happening in Barbados by 1650?
was overcrowded + most of arable land under cultivation
- freed servants on land now lacked opportunities
- pop. needed provisions
- migration became prevalent in last third of century to other British colonies
How did SC become a colony?
mix of wealthy planters + freed servants + African slaves from Barbados settled near present day Charleston
- first began growing maize + beans for survival
- soon began to produce other foods + raise livestock + harvest timber
How was slavery being part of SC's economy inevitable?
SC gov. incentivized slavery by giving landowners free land for bringing slaves
- 1669 Constitution of Carolina gave masters absolute power over their slaves
How important were the black slave men from Africa to the colonial enterprise of the Low Country?
- some brought great husbandry knowledge of livestock + crops
- white settlers relied on them to develop thriving herds of cattle
What was the recipe for economic success in the early Low Country?
- planter's ability to adapt to Low Country environment
- willingness to blend English w/ non-English techniques
Why did everyone in the Low Country have reason to produce rice over maize based foods?
early settlers went through trials to find suitable staple crop to grow in region
- experimented w/ rice in 1690s but didn't show much promise at first
- began to succeed in rice growing around end of the century
- rice was inexpensive + filling + easy to store = made it popular among poor Euro families + feeding workers
- Euro high demand for food + inc. Euro pop. = rice revolution in Low Country
What was the SC colony economy like prior to 1740?
- rice would completely takeover maize + livestock + lumber production
- rice was major Low Country export by 1720s when it surpassed pitch/tar
What did farmers do that caused the boom in rice production in the Low Country?
switched from reservoir rice culture to tidal rice culture
- began accounting for 60% of Low Country exports by 1760s
What did the beginning of the rice boom create?
a huge demand for labor
- caused mass import of slaves more than any other mainland colony rest of 18th century
How did Low Country geography affect rice production?
limited rice culture + affected direction of its spread
- rice grew in coastlands where tidal rivers irrigated the fields
- cultivation existed in strip along Atlantic seldom more than 20 mi wide
- expanded quickly southward but growth halted as Spanish English territory murky in that direction
What happened in 1732?
British establish Georgia colony
- was made to reform England's dispossessed/criminals elements + become beacon of Christian morals
- Georgia Trustees banned slavery from colony in 1734 (thought it would hinder original mission of colony)
- GA free of slaves first two decades of existence
Why did slavery quickly become adopted by GA shortly after the legislative ban?
hurried along by failures of inadequately prepared poor white colonists in producing staples trustees demanded
- SC colonizers joined w/ GA planters to persuade trustees to adopt slavery
- trustees first experimented w/ more humane version of slavery in 1740s
- but went full adoption by after 1750 due to economic pressures
Who were the first migrants in GA coastal regions?
land hungry South Carolinians
- brought w/ them know how of producing rice + preferred slave labor force
- other groups came too following Spanish land cession after 1763
Where did GA get most of its first slaves from?
via SC market until 1760s
- began importing slaves directly from Africa after that
- GA had to wait until market could dispose of entire cargo before slavers would come to there ports
- had about equal pop. distribution between black/white by 1773
- blacks outnumbered whites considerably in rice production regions (like SC)
Why did slavery stay exclusively in the Low Country of GA but not extend more inland?
confinement of rice culture to coastal strip + inland GA had difficulties growing staple crops
What did the rice production boom in the Low Country do to the agricultural economy?
created first large scale plantation operations on mainland
- began to resemble sugar cane operations in Caribbean
- small farms not as efficient as large plantations
What did SC begin to grow alongside rice as a main staple?
- was able to grow in drier areas where rice couldn't
- early growth of English textiles in 1740s + demand for blue dye brought 30 year boom in crop
- high maintenance plant but fast production cycle so could be integrated w/ other operations
What did the introduction of the large plantation style economy have on the Atlantic slave trade?
enormous # of Africans exported to mainland
- 92,000 imported to Charleston between 1706-76
- 1740 = black slaves make up 90% of pop. in upper/lower Charleston
What did plantation masters in the Low Country do during the slow growing periods?
spent time in Charleston/Savannah to escape cold + left plantation operations in hands of overseer
What did the transition to intensive large plantation agriculture do to slaves?
inc. their mortality rate
- made work more difficult + living conditions dec.
- planters not worried about dying slaves since prices were low so easy to replace
- when rice price fell planters began growing even more rice + using more land (even worse living + inc. mortality)
What caused white anxieties to mount in all mainland colonies?
when proportion of slaves to free blacks began to rise
- resulted in slow erosion of black rights in Low Country
- Low Country gave harshest punishments/strictest laws to blacks of all the English colonies
When did restrictions on free blacks begin in the Low Country?
SC when it adopted Jamaican Slave Code of 1684 in 1691
When did white fears really begin to rise in the Low Country?
after mid 1720s (when slave imports topped 1000 per year)
- "suspicion gatherings" of blacks in Charleston prompted action of SC trustees
What action did SC trustees take to restrict the group gathering of blacks in Charleston?
organized "Negro Watch" in 1721
- confined blacks found on the street after 9 PM
- colonial militias began taking irregular patrols in rural areas (militias acted w/o restriction on punishments)
What were some actions taken by colonial militias against slaves/free blacks in the Low Country?
- lashed slaves found off their plantations
- searched slave dwellings for no reason
- killed suspected runaways who resisted
What were the high court "slave justice" punishments for blacks in the Low Country?
- castration + nose splitting + mutilation + burning
- overseers/masters would administer even worse private punishments outside of legal realm
What were the job constrictions put on free blacks in the Low Country?
blacks/whites not able to work same jobs
- whites limited blacks in practicing skilled trades
- most blacks served as road/canal builders + waste disposers + debt collectors for masters
What social construct became a large issue among white men in the Low Country?
interracial sexual relations
- white fear of black men raping white women spread throughout the century
- news devoted a lot of time to alleged black rape (ignored common white rape of black women)
What were some hidden social/cultural advantages for blacks living in the Low Country plantations?
rice production lent itself to a task system of labor
- overseers doled out specific tasks for slaves to do (when finished slaves given free time)
- free time let slaves develop their own cultural practices separate from white society
- raised own crops + hunted/fished + made on crafts + spent time socializing
- important in first developments of African American culture
What is the contemporary view of how rice was introduced as a staple in the Low Country?
not an accidental success by English as once claimed
- credited w/ men/women of West Africa introducing crop + technology for producing it in swampy Low Country
What was the experience like for African slaves coming to Lower Mississippi?
differed from other major colonies on mainland
- France + Spain major Euro colonizers in the region
- Lower Mississippi remained marginal in colonial ambitions
- French tried making slave based economy but never took hold like other parts of Southeast
What was the result of the lack of a true staple slave based society in Lower Mississippi?
slave society but was a more opening setting by 1750
- mingling of Indians whites + blacks
- allowed individuals in each group greater movement + more social/economic interactions
- greater black opportunity for freedom
What happened in Lower Mississippi after the Spanish took control from the French in 1763?
meant more effort to stimulate plantation based economy
- Spain still provided ambitious blacks more opportunities than other colony regions
- greater mixture of Indians + whites + blacks than anywhere else in North America during colonial period
How did the Lower Mississippi colonies start?
first settled by Frenchmen from Canada in 1699
- intent on securing backdoor to Indian fur trade
- w/ French Caribbean sugar plantations thriving they had little reason to duplicate success in Mississippi
What happened after the establishment of New Orleans by the French in 1718?
settlers raised pressures to import African slaves (gov. allowed slavery in 1719)
- 1719-31 = 7600 African slaves imported directly to LA
- most from Senegambia + referred to as Bambaras
What was the result of the early slave imports into LA?
LA not safe place + many new migrants didn't live long
- in time Africans began to survive even better than whites
- blacks outnumbered whites by 1722
What happened to the Africans that were staying in New Orleans?
constructed levees/buildings + worked on farms/plantations
- outside of New Orleans slaves felled trees + cut roads + built dwellings + grew labor/tobacco on plantations
What was different about the French slave codes vs the English slave codes in the colonies?
French already had legal basis for slavery in Code Noir in 1685 (similar code decreed in LA in 1724)
- French code also called for Catholic instruction of slaves
- placed church/state in way to guarantee slaves some meager rights (never worked out that way)
- slaves rarely received sacrament beyond baptisms
- even more rarely went to law enforcement for protection/compensation
- slave punishments in Lower Mississippi still very severe
Who else were maltreated in the Lower Mississippi along w/ black slaves?
- threatened by expanding plantations (some captured as slaves)
What was a common fear among French authorities in the Lower MS?
thought runaway slaves would make bonds w/ local Indian tribes (some actually did)
- handful of maroon settlements where Africans + Indians organized banditry raids + traded stolen goods
- planned ways to stop expansion of plantations
What event happened in 1729?
Natchez Indians aided by runaways rose up in districts across North New Orleans + killed 200 French settlers
- New Orleans governor armed 15 trusted slaves who joined Natchez enemies (Choctaw) to quell rebellion
What did French authorities award blacks that fought back slave rebellions with?
- formed small black militia to protect the colony + ensure loyalty of black pop. in the future
- militia helped protect colony against Indians + rival Euros over next several decades
What caused French authorities to stop importing slaves after into the Lower MS 1730?
past insurrections + fear of even larger/unruly black pop.
- caused expansion of tobacco/indigo plantations to slow
- colony began to diversify its export economy
- happening same time slave economy sustaining in Chesapeake + thriving in Low Country
- constrictions on blacks in lower MS began to loosen as other colonies becoming more constrictive
How did restrictions loosen for blacks in the Lower MS after slave imports halted?
creoles began to replace African born slaves + began finding more ways to gain their freedom
- once free they joined societal economy in trading goods/services
- subsistence based exchange economy emerged that French could do little to control
- eventually slaves began participating in the economy too
How did slaves begin to participate in the subsistence exchange based economy in the Lower MS?
some masters began allowing slaves time to work for themselves
- many of them marketed the foods they'd grown/game they'd trapped on their own
- some slaves prospered as boatsmen for bayous/boatsmen
- eventually masters permitted individual slaves to hire out their own time
What group became more prevalent/important in the Lower MS as blacks gained more of their freedom?
importance of black militias
- gained individual respect/status as they kept protecting from foreign enemies
- by 1760 = unique creole society had emerged in Lower MS
What were some of the privileges awarded those apart of the creole society in the Lower MS?
had greater independence than their counterparts in Anglo-America
- harsh punishment/discrimination still existed but had more opportunities + modest respect
What happened due to the Paris Treaty of 1763?
LA taken over by Spain + FL taken over by English
- altered the creole society to an extent
- both Spain/English intended to recreate the slave plantation society
- imported more slaves for indigo production
- but Euros had trouble controlling established society so it remained fluid
What happened in the Lower MS in 1769?
black militia helped authorities put down revolt by unhappy French planters
- prompted Spanish authorities to keep paths to freedom open for LA blacks
- New Orleans pop. of free blacks inc. in # + advanced both economically/socially
- creole blacks speaking mix of French/African language became integral part of society
- slave society became society w/ slaves
When again would life become more restrictive for free blacks in the Lower MS?
not until 1795 when sugar cane became the staple crop in the region
- by that time New Orleans had foundation of unique creole society in sizable free black pop.
- those who remained in slavery + others imported made up backbone of sugar cane workforce
How important were blacks to New England + Middle Colonies?
more important than many think
- especially in farming areas of CT + Long Island + lower Hudson River (blacks made up 50% of labor force there)
- certain industries like ironwork in PA/tanning in NY relied heavily on slave labor
- slaves worked in the carrying trade + around shipyards in RI + MA
Where were slaves concentrated in New England?
near coastal urban systems/river systems
- particularly heavy concentration in RI
- did work for white elites
- Middle Colonies had large black urban pops. (moved from serving gentry to assisting tradesmen)
- black pop. in some areas were critical to regional economy
- blacks didn't live in isolation from others of African descent + customs of whites didn't dominate lives
What was different about slavery in New England/the Middle Colonies?
- plantations never formed from north of PA
- typical northern slave lived alone/with one to two other slaves in a dwelling owned by master
- worked on small farms/small industry
What was different about where the early black slaves in New England/Middle Colonies came from?
- pre 1740 = rare for captives to arrive in northern ports directly from Africa
- most at first were Atlantic creoles who came from West Indies/one of southern mainland colonies
- 1740-70 = only time of significant slave importation in the north (still never approached plantation #s)
Why was there such a considerable difference in the slavery in the northern colonies vs the Chesapeake/Low Country?
regional economy differences
- New England/Middle Colony farmers never devoted most resources to staple crop production
- no staple crop capable of production in the region
- northerners instead became efficient in other tasks that brought them export credits for trade balance
- tasks include grain/livestock farming + whaling/fishing + carrying trade (no mass slavery needed for these tasks)
How did northern farmers who produced food crops make a living w/o mass slavery?
did so efficiently on small farms
- most relied on their own family labor
- tended not to gain extraordinary wealth to buy a lot of slaves/expand operations
Why did northerners even engage in buying slaves all the way up to the American Revolution if they were buying such small numbers?
has to do largely w/ their extensive participation in the carrying trade + need for labor/its availability
- Atlantic economy had big effect on their order of operations
How did the New England/Middle Colonies start?
Dutch colonists (not English) first to import slaves north of MD
- Dutch West India Company established posts along Hudson River in mid 1620s
- participated in fur trade + lumber
- company refused to put enough $$$ into creating staple crop economy
- instead brought workers before farmers
When did the Dutch West India Company first begin to import slaves?
1626 began importing them into New Amsterdam
- most came from Curacao in Dutch West Indies/from holdings on Spanish ships
- slaves put to work clearing land along Hudson
- slaves had made enough land arable by 1650 to change nature of New Netherland
How did the colonizing goals of the Dutch change after 1650?
arrived intending to settle permanently
- used cleared land for growing grain + keeping livestock
- farming replaced fur trading as principal colonial activity
How did the Atlantic creoles imported into the Dutch colonies take advantage of their knowledge of the Dutch culture + importance of social networking?
- many gained baptism in Dutch Reformed Church
- many established families + interacted w/ others in communities
- accumulated property + pushed for rights
- some obtained full/partial freedom from the company + gained title to farmland
What was Dutch colonial society like in the 1640s?
found free blacks trading in New Amsterdam market + drinking in taverns w/ all races
- resulted in melding of cultures
What happened after the 1640s to black life in New Netherland?
freedoms quickly restricted
- Dutch authorities used promise of large availability of cheap black slaves to lure more white farmers to colony
- caused inc. in slave shipments directly from Africa to New Netherland
- Reformed Church helped move along acceptance of slavery by stopping slave baptisms + dec. emancipation
- by 1660s = 1/8 of citizens owned slaves + 25% of pop. made up of African descended people
What happened after the English took over New Netherland in 1664?
treatment of blacks remained the same
- English laws in NY recognized slavery at same time they restricted white servitude
- resulted in inc. demand for slaves
Where did most black slaves live in the New York colony?
- made up 21% of city pop.
- black women frequently used as domestics + outnumbered black men
Why was NYC so dependent on slave importation to keep #s high enough?
black women had low fertility rates
- due to overwork + malnutrition + discouragement to reproduce by masters
Where else did the Dutch West India Company import slaves besides NY?
carried small #s along Delaware River to NJ + PA
How did slavery develop in PA?
slaves arrived in Philly even before Quakers
- William Penn + other settlers along Delaware River had high demand for slave labor
- by 1700 = 1/15 PA families had slaves
- 1726 = PA has laws governing difference between slaves + free blacks
- slave codes not as severe as southern colonies but still created social caste system based on race
Why were most black men/women that arrived in New England there in the first place + not in the South?
b/c of coastal New England's interdependence w/ West Indies + its heavy participation in the Caribbean trade
What were some characteristics of the Caribbean - New England trade?
- many ships from Caribbean had small # of slaves transported to New England
- often considered "bad bunch" of slaves
- slavers sometimes used Caribbean islands as way stations on their way to New England
What was different about New England slave masters compared w/ Chesapeake/Low Country masters?
- seemed to care less about receiving "bad lot" of slaves from Caribbean
- showed less concern about place of origin Africans came from
- believed they could train blacks individually to instill Yankee values to anyone
How did slavery in New England + the Middle Colonies change after 1740?
took on a greater African cast
- inc. opportunities in Europe + occasional blocking of Euro shipping lines by war cut white labor immigration
- prompted large scale purchase of slaves
- new slaves not Atlantic creoles like before (most directly from African continent)
How would the switch from the majority Atlantic creole slaves to directly from Africa slaves change the northern colonies?
- would change ability of blacks to build families/wealth of their own
- would see incorporation of African + northern African American culture
- saw waning of free black pop. in the region
What was the distribution of slaves in the northern colonies like?
- slaves mostly concentrated in the major parts due to colonial shipping roots of the region
How was slavery in the northern colony big urban cities from Salem to Philly different?
slave ownership seen as status symbol there
- 1/6 Philly families had slaves by 1767 (merchants + shopkeepers owned 1/3 of slaves)
- nearly all slaves owned by widows/"gentlemen" were household slaves
- artisans + craftsmen + men involved in maritime ventures owned half the slaves
- some slaves had special skills that were broadcast in the newspapers
- most slaves still worked in the countryside like other colonies though
What was the work life for black slaves in the northern colonies like?
still very countryside/agriculture focused
- most part of small/medium sized farms
- largest concentrations in CT + NJ + Long Island + RI
- farms raised provisions + draft animals primarily for export to West Indies
- white laborers made up good portion of seasonal crop workers
- owning slave still seen as mark of status like in the big cities
What did the smaller pop. of slaves in north relative to the South mean?
slave pop. easier to control
- very lax enforcement of existing slave codes
What were the slave codes in New England/Middle Colonies like?
- walked fine line between person/property
- resulted in ambivalence in colonial statutes
- MA = taxed slaves like property
- CT + RI = taxed slaves like livestock
- slaves could own/transfer/inherit property at same time masters could sell/bequeath them
What was different about MA Puritan slave masters in New England?
regarded slaves like family almost
- thought they had every right God had given whites
- puritans also regarded blacks in biblical terms as well (meant harsh opinions on miscegenation)
- MA law = banished blacks who fornicated w/ whites to West Indies (harshest miscegenation law in any colony)
What stoked fear among New Englanders starting in the mid 18th century?
large # of slaves directly from Africa coming in
- prompted some colonies to tighten laws regarding manumission + slave control
- Middle Colonies = blacks tended to congregate big cities (made it harder for authorities to control)
- curfew + laws forbidding selling alcohol to blacks became common
- NY = had most difficult time controlling blacks
How were the restrictions on northern blacks different than southern blacks?
not as proscribed as southern slaves
- difficult for authorities in cities to restrain slaves that worked as deliverymen + errand runners + artisans
- slaves just as hard to control in countryside where slaves found time to work for themselves
- urban authorities grew tolerant of curfew violations + gatherings of blacks not appearing to cause trouble
How did the free black pop. in the North compare w/ the South?
smaller pop. in the North
- lives not considerably better than northern slaves
- very presence of slaves somewhat hindered free blacks
How did the presence of slaves hinder advancement of free blacks in the North?
slaves that rose to prominent positions under their masters didn't threaten whites
- free blacks who achieved important positions did threaten whites
- whites made sure free blacks could only work menial jobs
- free blacks had difficulty getting credit + free black artisans not always welcome in shipyards/building sites
- destitute free blacks had it worse than even slaves
- free blacks punished for trying to advance themselves in ways that could threaten white society
What was the difference between the labor needed for rice vs tobacco?
rice a much more labor intensive crop than tobacco
- tobacco much easier to tend but the work is consistent while rice has peaks/valleys
- indigo + wheat considered the least intensive of the major crops
What was unique about the Low Country plantation system?
slaves broken into task system for rice production
- gave slaves greater autonomy in their work
- slaves not under constant supervision + their duties were easier to measure
- once one was completed w/ tasks their time was their own to grow their own food on the land/hunt/fish
- common standard of what was considered reasonable amount of work adopted throughout region
What was the labor system like for tobacco production?
slaves under close supervision (tobacco very touchy crop that needed constant attention)
- supervised gang system spread quickly through the Chesapeake
- sunup-to-sundown style of work that didn't incentivize slaves to get work done quickly
- slaves had less free time + ability to work land to grow their own food
What was the difference in working rate between slaves on small farms vs large plantations?
worked more steadily on small farms
- tended to manipulate the working time to their advantage on large plantations
What was the black labor force like in the North?
slave men were normally skilled to some extent (some jack of all trades)
- more diversified northern economy required broader range of skills
- whites thus felt less threatened when blacks performed skilled work in the region
- many blacks worked as sailors + shipbuilders in New England