Flashcards in CH 1: Atlantic Origins Deck (22)
What is the significance of Sullivan Island?
where more enslaved Africans arrived first in North America than any other place
Where would slaves stay when they first arrived at Sullivan Island?
- stayed there for quarantine period before being taken to Charleston for sale
Why were slaves being quarantined when they first arrived on Sullivan Island?
farmers didn't want to contract potential diseases from Africa/the bacteria infested boats they traveled on
How long did the Trans-Atlantic slave trade last?
- along Atlantic side of Americas down to European colonies in Caribbean + Central/South America
What did the Trans-Atlantic slave trade rely on?
US production of cash crops (mostly sugar) to feed Euro demand
Which civilization popularized the use of slavery?
- 40% of Italian peninsula pop. made of slaves
- system run for over 200 yrs.
- would dec. as economic institution in Europe after Roman empire collapse
- still widely adopted by Mediterranean pop. + much of continental Europe
What was the Roman legal status of slaves adopted by continental Europe after the Empire's fall?
classified slaves as "chattel" (property of another)
- provided legal basis for Crusaders to enslave enemies + sell them off to agricultural enterprises
- Crusaders = using same logic as Muslim conquerors before them who'd enslaved Christians
- agriculture began to grow rapidly in Mediterranean post 11th century
How had Europe changed by the end of the 13th century?
plantation system established
- centered on island of Cyprus + focused on providing sugar to Euro market
- some who worked in cane field were free + some were serfs
- sugar production inc. identified w/ slave labor
Where did Mediterranean shippers get their sugar plantation workers from?
Balkans + Southern Russia + Asia Minor + North Africa
- people who spoke Slavic languages
- those from N Africa marched across Sahara from Sudan
How did slavery by the end of the 13th century spread over the next 200 years?
- first to Crete + Sicily
- then to coastal Spain + Portugal
- by 1450 = slave sugar plantations existed in all western Mediterranean + nearby Atlantic islands
How were the motives of the European explorers from the middle of the 15th century on different than their predecessors?
not about spreading Christianity + seeking geographical knowledge
- Euro rulers sponsored missions to garner wealth for state
- most individuals had eye on gaining personal fortune
What was the result of many of these post 15th century missions in the Atlantic?
some wealth found in Africa/Americas but not many Atlantic border lands possessed obvious riches
- forced colonies to turn towards agriculture exportation (sugar the main focus)
How did the colonial agricultural economy of the 16th century develop?
went alone tropical Atlantic rim
- first off islands of West Africa (Sao Tome became leading sugar producer by 16th century)
- northeastern Brazil becomes leading sugar producer by 17th century
- 1640 = export economy had spread to Lesser Antilles + English tobacco growing North American colonies
How did the plantation model change as the Atlantic economy expanded?
became accepted way to make profits from great expanses of land
What was the catch in establishing plantations overseas?
finding adequate # of workers very difficult
- native Americans never lived up to Euro expectations as field workers
- natives died rapidly from Euro diseases
- those that survived resisted pressures to adapt to work culture of Euros (since they could run away pretty easily)
- close family + had greater knowledge of the land than Euros
Why didn't Europeans find other Europeans to work the plantations?
Euros refused to enslave other Euros
- "bonded" persons (Euro criminals on worker contract) not much better at work than natives
- white laborers fell victim to tropical diseases
- if they ran away could easily pass as members of ruling class
What was another factor that limited the amount of European workers willing to work in the sugar plantations?
growing domestic Euro economies made it difficult to attract Euro workers
- military jobs + high paying trades much better options
- ocean journey very arduous + less wage
How did Africans perform on the sugar plantations?
very effective (best ROI)
- Euro diseases already endemic to Africans since they'd been in close contact historically
- Africans has acquired immunity by the time of adolescence
- Africans lived much longer in harsh plantation climates than white workers
- could not run home/be mistaken for ruling class
What was the first route that African slaves arrived in North American colonies?
from West Indies
- involved merchant shippers who topped off cargo w/ slaves
- ships brought relatively few slaves compared to second route
What was the second route that African slaves arrived in North American colonies?
directly from Africa/West Indian island (most common)
- first slaves unacculturated + raw + frightened (deemed "outlandish" by whites)
- resembled same cultural characteristics as those back in Africa
Where did most African slaves come from?
coast + interior of West/West Central Africa
- Euro merchants purchased slaves from over 3000 miles of African coastline
- conflicts in Europe affected when/where slavers sought cargoes
- particular market captain visited may depend on relationships w/ local merchant community