Flashcards in Ch. 2 - Social Theory Deck (90):
an overarching framework that suggests certain assumptions and assertions about the way the world works. These frameworks are used for posing research questions and evaluating evidence related to those questions
Social Theories are ________.
Systematic ideas that help explain the relationship between individuals and society
Some social theories are macro in nature and seek to explain ________.
Universal features of societies
Jennifer is a new student in sociology. She is having trouble in her theory class because none of her theories she is learning about seem to say the same things about society. As a more experienced sociology student, what might you say to Jennifer to help her understand why this is the case?
Sociology has multiple and competing theories and most sociologists draw on more than one at a time to make sense of their work.
How many themes do sociological theories have in common?
Sociological theories tend to have _____ areas of focus, but all have _______ in mind.
Different; the same goals
the sociological concept that refers to a group of people who share a similar social and economic position in society
ancient societies, feudalism, capitalism
modes of production
one part of the modes of production; the technological and productive capacity of any society at a given point in time
forces of production
one part of the modes of production: the relationships and inequalities between different kinds of people within the economy
social relations of production
the group in a capitalist economy who owns businesses and employ people to work for them. This term is used in the Marxist tradition to refer to the most powerful class in a capitalist society
a resource that can be used to make investments
individuals in capitalists economies who work in exchange for pay. "Working Class"
in Marxist theory, a socialist mode of production is one in which the productive forces of society are collectively owned (not by individual business owners).
the idea that classes of people who are treated differently by the economic system is inevitably going to be in conflict with one another
according to Durkheim, those regularities and rules of everyday life that exists independently and outside the control of individuals
all of the forms of social structure that any individual must operate within. Social forces are related to Durkheim's facts
the process by which individuals come to understand the expectations and norms of their groups as well as the various roles they transition into over the life course and how to behave in society or in any particular social settings
the social forces that hold any society together
factors that hold primitive societies together, mostly through family and kinship ties and a collective consciousness shared by members of the community
the specialization of individuals in any organization or group, or in society as a whole, particularly in relation to work.
division of labor
according to Emile Durkheim, as societies become more advanced, they are held together through the mutual dependence and interdependence individuals have with one another
holy; worthy of special reverence
the study of the meanings individuals ascribe to their actions
1: Individual/group to get another individual/group to do something it wants which might include force.
2: The power to control the agenda of issues that are to be decided.
3: Power to persuade others that their interests are the same of a powerholder.
ability to compel others to do things without needing to resort to threats
the acceptance of the authority of a ruler and/or system of government
"gift of grace"; unique individuals who claim special powers to gifts that their followers believe to be true
Max Weber, any group that forms a common identity and develops ways of distinguishing insiders from outsiders.
the full range of social hierarchies found in any society, which creates inequalities between individuals and groups
the process by which organized groups seek to establish or maintained privileged access to rewards or opportunities
Georg Simmel to describe how close or intimate or apart any two individuals or groups are with each other
a research technique that focuses on identifying the connections among individuals, groups, or organization
the tiers or connections between people, groups and organizations
prejudice &/or discrimination against individuals who are members of a particular racial or ethical groups often drawing on negative stereotypes
Karl Marx collaborated with which other sociologist in his sociological writings?
The theoretical works of Durkheim focus primarily on what theme?
Which sociological theorist was most interested in understanding why each of us behaves the way we do?
Imagine you are a sociologist interested in designing a research study to investigate whether or not there are differences in college students' academic outcomes depending on whom they have in their social networks to help them through college. The works of which sociological theorist might be most useful in helping explain the theoretical basis of this research
Marx theories are primarily focused on explaining how _______ perpetuates social inequality, while Du Bois theories focus on how _______ perpetuate inequality.
a theory of society in which individuals, group
a theory of how species evolve that emphasizes the process through which biological traits become more or less common depending on whether they enhance the survival of the species
type of social theory that emerged out of dissatisfaction with structural functionalism and held that all societies are characterized by conflicts that arise from the uneven distribution of power and wealth between groups
Which sociological theorist is primarily associated with the development of structural functionalism?
__________ utilizes the logic of __________ to explain social change.
Structural functionalism; biology
Which area of sociological thought focuses on how inequality produces tensions between people in society?
Symbolic interactionism focuses primarily on which aspect of social life?
how people interact and create shared meaning
Which of the following concepts would a symbolic interactionist most likely use in their research?
an updated form of Marxism; contends that the capitalist state could, and indeed often has, forced powerful economic classes to make "concessions" to the working class
the governing institutions and legal system in a capitalist society
the ways in which capitalist economies are linked in a global system, in which rich, developed countries are able to exploit undeveloped countries through a global division of labor in which poor countries provide raw materials and lower-skill labor.
capitalist world system
the growing permeability of national borders and the increase in flows of goods, services, and people across national borders
social theories which place gender relations and male domination at the center of their conceptualization of societies
feminist social theory
a gender system in which men have substantially more power than women in politics, the economy, and the family
whether a person is classified as male or female based on anatomical or chromosomal criteria
the ways that social forces create differences between men's and women's behavior, preferences, treatment, and opportunities, and
the process by which people interpret the natural world and make it meaningful
differences that are assumed to exist because of anatomical or chromosomal criteria
the study of the conscious and unconscious aspects of the mind and their influence on individual behavior
forms of inequality that overlap and potentially reinforce one another. One's class, race, ethnicity, religion, gender, sexuality, or other characteristics may create multiple forms of disadvantage that inequality researches should consider
the diverse ways in which individuals develop intuitive understandings and engrained habits reflecting their class background and upbringing
the type and level of education and cultural knowledge possessed by an individual. Having a high level of cultural capital signifies one's high status in the eyes of others
the resources available to a particular individual through his or her connections to others
a theory that makes specific, researchable propositions about particular aspects of society. Middle-range theories can be contrasted with broader or grand theories of society as a whole
an approach to social theory and research that centers on "middle-range" questions and seeks to uncover the processes, or mechanisms, through which individuals are influenced by social forces
a theory that starts from the proposition that societies rest on the choices and action that individuals make, but in the context of the social forces that shape and constrain individual choice
the process by which someone is defined in a particular way and then comes to fulfill the expectations of that definition
the idea that the outcomes of any action we undertake may well be unanticipated, as for example when we get a dog for companionship but soon make new human friends who take their dogs for exercise at the same park we do
unanticipated consequences of social action
specific factor or factors that cause something to happen or produce some outcome
__________ refers to the increasing flows of goods and services across national borders.
According to feminist theory, there is an empirical difference between an individual's __________ and __________.
A sociologist is writing a research proposal for a new project about how disciplining children in school, such as by giving them detention or suspension, may impact their academic achievement. Which theorist's work might be useful for informing this research topic?
Which of the following is the best example of cultural capital?
knowing a lot about fine wine
Both analytical sociologists and Bourdieu are interested in which sociological concept?
Unlike economics, sociology has many __________ to learn about.
__________ can help explain social change.
The sociological theories of Marx are focused primarily on __________.
inequality in economic systems
According to the theories of Karl Marx, capitalism, feudalism, and communism are all examples of __________.
modes of production
Rupert Murdoch, owner of one of the world's largest media conglomerates, is best characterized as __________.
a member of the bourgeoisie
Imagine you are entering an elevator full of other people. When you step in you most likely turn around to face the door like everyone else. This behavior is an example of which sociological concept?
a social norm
__________ solidarity, unlike __________ solidarity, is associated with an extensive division of labor in society.
Sending children to school is one way we engage individuals in the __________ process.
Durkheim emphasized __________, while Weber emphasized __________, in his theory of society.
social facts; social action
According to Simmel, the difference between how emotionally close you may feel to your parent when compared to how emotionally unclose you may feel to your dentist is an example of how __________ matters in your daily life.
Prior to the work of theorists like W. E. B. Du Bois, it was believed that __________ was the result of biological differences between groups of people.
Imagine you are a sociologist studying poverty in society. As a result of your research, you conclude that many jobs are created for individuals in society as a result of other people being in poverty. For example, there are vast numbers of social workers, nonprofit, and government employees who all have jobs to help people in poverty; all of which would be eliminated if poverty itself was also eliminated. Which theoretical framework could best help you explain this conclusion?
In a symbolic interactionist framework, physical, social, and abstract objects are all potential __________.
subjects of interpretation
Over time, social theorists have helped us understand how characteristics of individuals, such as race and gender, are __________.