Ch. 3 - Studying the Social World Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 3 - Studying the Social World Deck (81):

a sociologist who enters the everyday lives of those he or she studies in hopes of understanding how they navigate and give meaning to their worlds



the capacity to think systematically about how many things we experience as personal problems-for example, debt from student loans-are really social issues that are widely shared by others born in a similar time and social location as us. It involves taking into account how our individual lives are impacted by historical and social contexts

sociological imagination


a prediction researchers make that they will test in their research



a judgement about what is intrinsically important or meaningful. When it comes to research, values held by sociologists shape their views of and perspectives on the questions they ask



a conceptual framework or paradigm that sociologists use to imagine and make sense of the world

theoretical traditions


a set of guidelines that outlines what is considered moral and acceptable behavior in some context (such as within an organization or profession)

code of ethics


the voluntary participation of someone in a research project or medical treatment based on the participant/patient having a full understanding of possible risks and benefits involved

informed consent


required at all universities that receive federal funds for research, these boards review researchers proposals before any work can begin in order to assess the potential harm of the research for participants being studied

institutional review boards


Before conducting research, sociologists often come up with a prediction about what might be discovered by the research. This prediction is called a....



A sociologists supports marriage equality, and he decided to conduct a research project on marriage laws in each state. His support of marriage equality could also be called his.....



Which of the following illustrates a researcher obtaining informed consent?

a researcher describes the risks and benefits of participating in a study before enrolling the subject


Sociologists often use conceptual frameworks inherited from earlier scientists. These historical conceptual frameworks are called....

theoretical traditions


Which of the following scenarios depicts a researcher breaking an ethical code?

The researcher publishes the full names of participants along side the study in a research journal


when researchers define the methods and techniques to be used to assess and define the concepts that are being investigated



the variable that fluctuates in relation to other "independent" variables. In research, the dependent variable is the object of explanation, or what the researcher is trying to explain

dependent variable


a factor that might help to explain some outcome of interest. An example might be the impact of educational level-in this case, the independent variable-on one's income as an adult

independent variable


a step by step process of conducting research that begins with formulating a research hypothesis, then operationalizing variables, then collecting data, and finally drawing empirical and conceptual generalizations from the data

scientific method


research that relies on statistical analysis of numerical or categorical data

quantitative research


research that relies on nonnumerical data, such as words, observations, or pictures



research that uses evidence that is both qualitative and quantitative

mixed-method research


a type of research in which information is derived by asking people to answer standardized questions, which may collect information about any aspect of human life of interest to the investigator, including information about jobs, employment, family life, health, education, and policy or political attitudes and values



respondents are asked identical questions, and they are generally required to choose among the answers provided to them

closed-ended surveys


in which interviewees provide answers to questions in their own words

open ended surveys


a biennial survey of american society since 1972 covering a wide range of social, demographic, and attitudinal questions

general social survey


a method of collecting data based on asking a person a set of questions and having a conversation with him or her focused on gathering information related to the research

in-depth interviews


a qualitative research method for studying they way of life of a group of people by close observation of them over a relatively long period of time. Ethnography get inside the worlds they study, up-close and even as direct participants.



a rich, detailed description of the ways people make sense of their lives

thick descriptions


a method of conducting ethnography that emphasizes the contribution of research to social theory. An ethnographer using the extended case method starts from a theoretical problem or puzzle

extended case method


a method of research that examines differences across countries or in different historical periods to try to understand what factors cause some specific change to occur

comparative historical research


research that focuses on explaining the differences between countries, such as understanding why some outcome is observed in one country and not another

cross-national comparisons


Jennifer is studying the effects of nutrition on student performance in school. She researches a group of students and finds that students who miss breakfast often do poorly during the school day. What is the dependent variable in this scenario?

student school performance


What relies on the statistical analysis of data?

quantitative research


A group of questions asked o a large group of people is called an



Which of the following sociological questions reveals a comparative-historical perspective?

In what ways are modern neo-Nazis different from Nazis during world war 2?


A sociologist wants to find out personal details about her participants married life. Which of the following types of data collection methods is the most appropriate?

conduct in-depth interviews


a technique to define what or whom to include in a study



a small group of people, ideally selected at random, who are similar to the entire population

representative sample


a technique for choosing participants for a research study in which each person in the population of interest has an equal chance of being chosen so that the sample mirrors a larger population and reflects its characteristics or dynamics

random sampling


in a survey where there are differences between some known property of the population being studied and the completed interviews (such as the percentage of women, or minorities, or some other key population characteristic ) that results can be adjusted by giving slightly more importance to the responses of each member of an under-sampled group



the ability or right to approach, enter, exit, communicate with, or make use of research sites and materials



the extent to which the same measurement technique in additional studies would end up producing similar results



a study that has been repeated to make sure its results are correct



the extent to which the measurement a researcher uses accurately measures what is intended to measure



when change in one variable is a direct cause of change in another variable. For example, long term smoking is established as a cause of increased risk of lung cancer



the existence of a relationship between two variables. A correlation exists when a change in one variable is related to a change in another variable. It does not necessarily imply, however, that the change in one variable is the cause of the change in the other. Can be contrasted with causality



a statement about cause and effect that claims that a change in one variable is the cause of a change in another variable

causal inference


when two factors seem to move in the same direction but both are themselves caused by something else(i.e, a third factor), sociologists refer to the apparent relationship between the first two factors as a spurious relationship

spurious relationship


research based on data that is collected at one point in time



research based on data collected over a long period of time

longitudinal research


which of the following correctly defines the term "sampling"?

a technique to define what or whom to include in a study


what is the difference between reliability and validity?

reliability describes when an experiment repeatedly produces similar results, whereas validity means that results measure what they were intended to measure


Angela observes that children from lower-income families tend to have higher rates of lead poisoning. She finds out that low-income does not cause lead poisoning but is connected to conditions that can result in lead poisoning. Angelas results are an example of which of the following?

a correlation


Data collected over a long period, such as many years, is called

longitudinal data


Michael is going to conduct a study in a college dorm. He decides to include in the study only students in every third room. this is an example of which of the following?

developing a random sample


the scientific process by which researchers interpret the data they have collected

data analysis


the organization of data based on key concepts and categories

data coding


a visual projection of patterns in data, for example as tables or figures

data displays


an extended version of research notes, usually organized analytically, that allows researchers to work through their findings and the evidence they have to support them

research memos


forming conclusions about broader society from research on a subgroup or sample of the broader society



the application of conclusions from findings about one group or setting to the larger population. An empirical research result is generalizable when the same result can be found in another context

empirical generalizability


the application of conclusions from findings based on a sample or case to larger sociological processes and theories around the world

theoretical generalizability


When researchers organize the data according to key categories and concepts, they are....

data coding


What is the difference between empirical generalizability and theoretical generalizability?

Empirical generalizability means research results can be applied to a larger population, whereas theoretical generalizability means research results can be applied to a larger processes


Lengthier versions of research notes are known as....

research memos


Emilio is reviewing the data he collected from historical records about immigration in the United States. He decides to organize the data by the country the immigrants came from, such as Ireland, Italy, and Russia. Based on this description, you can tell Emilio is....

data coding


Based on her data, Tamara infers that children from higher income families are more likely to receive tutoring. She wants to make the general claim that children from higher income families tend to receive more school support. This is an example of....

making a generalization


Which of the following statements best highlights the key differences between qualitative and quantitative research?

Qualitative research relies on words, pictures, and observations, whereas quantitative research relies on statistical analysis


A conclusion about how one factor can result in a change in another factor is known as a _____.

causal inference


An institutional review board at a university has evaluated a particular research study and submitted a request to the researcher requiring that she have all participants sign a document stating that they agree to participate in the study. This IRB is focusing on ______.

Informed consent


Sociologist A completes an experiment and records the results. Sociologist B completes the same experiment, following the same steps as Sociologist A, but gets different results. This means that the experiment ___________.

is not reliable


A sociologist wants to know the reasons some people break up with their romantic partners through e-mail and the reasons other people break up in person. Which of the following would be the most reliable way to conduct this research?

Observe people's real behaviors and interactions.


Which of the following statements best explains the relationship between data analysis and research?

A qualitative sociologist is likely to organize her primary data into key categories and concepts.


Which of the following research questions would lead to a cross-national comparison?

What causes England's infant mortality rate to be lower than the United States' infant mortality rate?


What term describes when a researcher sits down one-on-one with a participant in order to ask a series of questions?

in-depth interview


________ is the term used to describe when two factors or two social phenomena "co-vary" with each other.



As part of a study, a sociologist observes a group of people. Then the sociologist applies the gathered data toward a broader theory of human behavior. This is called _______.

Making a theoretical generalization


A researcher is planning on a study to find out whether the number of hours of sleep a student gets before an exam affects the score the student achieves. The researcher thinks that fewer hours of sleep will result in the student achieving a lower exam score. This is an example of _______.

a hypothesis


A researcher has formulated a clear research question that can be studied and that balances general and specific details. Also, the researcher does not know the answer to this question and cares about getting the answer. What else should the researcher consider to determine whether or not the question is good for a study?

Does the question connect to existing literature or studies?


Which of the following is the best example of a causal inference?

Confusing voter registration laws result in some voters not knowing how to register.


After completing a study on the elderly and the costs of healthcare, a sociologist notices a pattern. The sociologist notices that the cost of prescription medications increases as the age of the elderly person increases. This pattern became easily noticeable after the sociologist constructed a ______.

data display


A sociologist plans to conduct a study that involves observing families interacting at the zoo. The sociologist documents all of her observations, takes photos of the families, and writes down descriptions of what she sees. This study illustrates _____.

Qualitative research