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Flashcards in CH 3 Deck (23):
1

Investigating the impact of a prevention technique or intervention on the level of subsequent crime, fear, or other intended outcome is referred to as:

-generalizability
-evaluation
-external validity
-reliability
-none of the above

evaluation

2

Ekblom and Pease argue that the goals of evaluation include all but which of the following?


-understanding the implementation of the intervention
-understanding the impact of the initiative
-understanding who had the most impact on a project
-all of the above are goals
-none of the above are goals

understanding who had the most impact on a project

3

Another name for an impact evaluation is:


-force evaluation
-benefit evaluation
-outcome evaluation
-scientific evaluation
-none of the above

outcome evaluation

4

The fact that neighborhoods or other geographic areas are often targeted in prevention raises all but which of the following problems?


-neighborhoods cannot be isolated
-interventions are not uniformly applied
-crime displacement may occur
-there are competing influences
-all of the above are problems

all of the above are problems

5

The largest problem with a cost-benefit analysis is:


-setting monetary values on all factors
-accessing the needed data
-getting the proper people involved
-securing funding
-none of the above

setting monetary values on all factors

6

Which of the following is NOT a reason for an atheoretical evaluation?


-an evaluation has already been conducted
-there is no interest in why the program works
-the administrators already know the program works
-there is a lack of interest in undertaking an evaluation
-all of the above are reasons

an evaluation has already been conducted

7

Which of the following is NOT an advantage of a true experimental design?


-increases the likelihood of group equivalency
-certainty that the experimental group receives the treatment
-other possible factors are controlled
-costs can be assessed
-all of the above are advantages

costs can be assessed

8

The taking of measurements in the study that cause change to occur in place of or beyond the impact of the stimulus refers to the problem of:


-history
-instrumentation
-testing
-selection
-none of the above

testing

9

Something that takes place independent of the experiment and causes the change to take place refers to:

-history
-instrumentation
-testing
-selection
-none of the above

history

10

Which of the following is NOT a threat to external validity listed by Tilley?


-place attributes
-non-crime options
-selection
-intervenor attributes
-all of the above are threats

selection

11

The underlying problem for external validity is that, too often, experimental designs fail to consider the __________.

-context of the program
-costs of the program
-implementation of the program
-dosage of the program
-none of the above

context of the program

12

The negative findings in an evaluation may be the result of all but which of the following?


-poor program implementation
-misspecification of the appropriate target
-misspecification of the causal mechanism
-resistance by the target
-none of the above

none of the above

13

Impact evaluations consider the implementation of a program or initiative and involve determining the procedures used to implement a specific program (TF)

false

14

The fact that crime prevention initiatives rarely rely on a single intervention or approach is an advantage in conducting evaluations (TF)

false

15

Process evaluations offer a detailed descriptive account of the program and its implementation (TF)

true

16

Cost-benefit analysis is a form of process evaluation that requires that an impact evaluation be completed at the same time (TF)

true

17

Self-report data is a response to evaluations of crime prevention programs on neighborhoods or other small geographic areas that do not coincide with specific police reporting areas (TF)

true

18

The ideal follow-up time for evaluation is 6 months (TF)

false

19

A true experimental design is also known as a randomized control trial (TF)

true

20

Threats to internal validity are factors that could cause the results other than the measures that were implemented (TF)

true

21

The issue of generalizability involves what are called threats to internal validity (TF)

false

22

Intensity of intervention in relation to target people, places of crime problems varies from site to site, and the level refers to the external validity problem of intervenor attributes (TF)

false

23

In realistic evaluation, rather than relying exclusively on experimental approaches, evaluation needs to observe the phenomenon in its entirety (TF)

true