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Flashcards in CH 4 Deck (25):

Oscar Newman’s concepts of “defensible space” were addressed primarily to:

-architects and policymakers
-police officers
-neighborhood residents
-Jane Jacobs

architects and policymakers


"A model that inhibits crime by creating a physical expression of a social fabric which defends itself" defines:

-defensible space
-motivation reinforcement
-none of the above

defensible space


Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design, as outlined by Newman, includes all but which of the following elements?

-natural surveillance
-all are elements of CPTED

all are elements of CPTED


Enhancing the ability and desire of residents and legitimate users of an area to lay claim to the area is:

-activity support
-none of the above



_________________ refers to things such as signs, landscaping, or other items that signal a change in ownership or area.

-symbolic territoriality
-none of the above

symbolic territoriality


The __________ of the Association of Chief Police Offices emphasizes and promotes the inclusion of safety and security measures in new and existing buildings.

-Crime and Disorder Act
-Secured By Design program
-Alley Gating Act
-National CPTED Guidelines
-none of the above

Secured By Design program


In Newman’s comparison of two housing complexes, he argued that high crime was related to all but which of the following?

-unmonitored entryways
-the sharing of entrances by a lot of close friends
-the inability to monitor outside activity
-unfamiliar users of the area
-all of these are related to high crime

the sharing of entrances by a lot of close friends


Evaluations of street lighting on crime, particularly in the U.K., reveal:

-little or no impact
-a negative impact
-a positive impact
-positive impact for businesses, negative for housing
-none of the above

a positive impact


Assessments of CCTV have generally shown:

-more crime in covered areas
-less crime mainly in public housing areas
-increased fear in covered areas
-many conflicting results
-none of the above

many conflicting results


Which of the following is NOT one of Fisher and Nasar’s elements impacting surveillability?

-all of the above are elements



The type of street layout that is associated with the lowest levels of crime is:

-through-traffic streets
-L-type streets
-one-way streets
-dead-end or cul-de-sac
-none of the above

dead-end or cul-de-sac


The evaluation of the North Asylum Hill environmental design project found all but which of the following?

-decline in fear
-increase in the use of the streets and parks by residents
-long-term decrease in crime
-reduced vehicular traffic
-all of the above were found

Long-term decrease in crime


Merry’s participant-observation study of a housing project that appeared to incorporate the basic defensible space features advocated by Newman found:

-no effect of the physical features on crime
-no effect of the physical features on surveillance and a sense of community.
-the physical features were not necessarily good for crime prevention
-all of the above
-none of the above

all of the above


The idea that CPTED needs to explicitly look beyond simple physical design and overtly incorporate social factors and activities in prevention is known as:

-neighborhood crime prevention
-secondary prevention
-second-generation CPTED
-formal surveillance
-none of the above

second-generation CPTED


Third-Generation CPTED focuses on:

-Police-led community interaction
-Green sustainable community design
-Grass-roots intervention
-International victimization
-None of the above

Green sustainable community design


Taylor’s research on disorder and incivility found that:

-only physical incivility makes a difference
-disorder and incivility are important only if residents perceive a problem
-disorder and incivility are the most important predictors of crime
-incivility has an impact only on resident’s fear
-none of the above

disorder and incivility are important only if residents perceive a problem


The use of guards or employees for prevention is referred to as:

-natural surveillance
-informal surveillance
-formal surveillance
-mechanical surveillance
-none of the above

formal surveillance


The ability to regulate who comes and goes from an area or building, with the intent of limiting access to legitimate users, is known as territoriality (TF)



Real territoriality is engendered by walls, fences, gates, or other items that place a physical barrier in front of people. (TF)



Activity support and motivation reinforcement are roughly the same thing (TF)



Territoriality, access control, surveillance and other elements of CPTED are complementary and always serve to enhance one another (TF)



A Type 3 effect in Rubenstein et al.’s model considers the impact of the physical design on a variety of intervening factors (TF)



Refuge deals with the presence or absence of concealment, in which offenders could hide from potential victims (TF)



Analysis of changes in the Union Avenue Corridor found little change in the level of crime or in the fear of crime (TF)



The Reducing Burglary Initiative in the U.K. found that in the majority of communities the program had little impact relative to control areas (TF)