Flashcards in Ch 5 Deck (43):
What does wealth refer to?
Wealth refers to mostly real estate, stocks, & bonds
What does income refer to?
Income reflects salary and wages
Members at the top of the upper class; known as the "upper uppers, blue bloods, old money, high society make up what percent of society?
Comprise less than 1% of the total U.S population. Most in this class are a matter of birth or inheritance.
Lower-upper class( new rich) refers to who?
Described as "new money, the working rich, or corporate class." Most achieve this status through entrepreneurship; athletes, lottery winners. 3-4% of pop.
40-45% of US pop.Most shaped by education.Dependent on salary/income versus inheritance.
"elite" professionals such as doctors, lawyers, engineers.
"Minor" professions such as teachers and social workers
Lower middle/working class
Skilled laborers such as police and firemen
What can the wealthiest Americans live off?
Dividends from their investments without having to touch the principal or work for a salary.
What is food insecurity?
Not having access at all times to enough food for an active, healthy life, necessitating recourse to emergency food sources. More than 1:10 of Americans were food insecure in 2007
What is feminization of poverty?
Over representation of women in poverty; often heads of households. Relates to increases in divorce, separations, out-of-wedlock births.
Who make up the majority of people living in poverty in the US?
Who are more likely to be poor amongst the elderly, adults, or children?
Where are US poverty rates highest?
Highest in central cities; but higher in rural areas than urban areas as a whole
In the U.S, what is social mobility closely linked to?
Educational attainment & economic opportunity.
What do women often experience when marriages end in divorce?
Downward social mobility
Have white women gained more from equal opportunity laws & affirmative action programs than people of color?
What is structural mobility?
S.M occurs when significant changes in society propel many people up or down the social class ladder @ the same time.
What is a recent change in regards to downward mobility?
Many middle class & blue collar workers have experience D.M as a result of the elimination or exportation of manufacturing jobs.
What does the Functionalist Perspective say about Social Stratification?
They believe that an unequal class structure is necessary for a successful society. People will work hard only if they receive rewards commensurate with their skills & education. Believe poverty is "functional," b/c it keeps up the demand for low paying jobs.
What does the Conflict Perspective say about Social Stratification?
Inequality is the result of oppression. Social classes involves prestige & power, as well as economic inequality.
What did Karl Marx (Conflict Theorist) say about Social Stratification?
Social class was the most important factor in understanding human behavior. Capitalist societies composed of 2 classes: bourgeoisie (those who owned means of production), & proletariat (those who sold their labor to the owners)
What does the Constructionist Perspective say about Social Stratification?
Workers think of themselves as middle class, or aspire to being middle class and lack a sense of interests with other low income people.
How do African Americans view social class?
Differently. They view class as detached from income and instead based upon identified middle-class behaviors.
Most middle-class people have $$ in the bank. What are some of the expectations they have for their children?
That they will go to college. Often provide them with enriching activities such as music lessons or summer camps.
Do most lower class usually have savings?
No; they often live paycheck to paycheck. Pay 15-20% more for most goods and services than do the better off b/c they charge vs. paying w/cash.
What is the financial state for underclass/permanent poor?
They usually have no cash reserve along w/a negative credit history. Often have to rely on family & friends, and title loans and pawn shops.
What is a critical issue for the working poor?
Affordable housing. High cost of housing was main cost of hunger.
The lower a person's class, the less likely it is that he/she will enjoy what?
In relation to eating healthy, what is it that the poor cannot afford?
TO buy fresh fruits and veggies and other sources of high grade, low fat nutrition.
As far as mental health, what class of people suffer more with mental health; what are the 2 most comm on illnesses?
The lower classes; anxiety & depression.
Lack of transportation seriously limits the poor from what?
In their efforts to seek & maintain employment. The working poor generally can not afford cars; or to keep up expenses with a used vehicle, such as insurance and maintenance.
What class of women are at higher risk of being physically assaulted by an intimate partner?
Low income women
True or False. One's chances of getting arrested, convicted & sent to prison are significantly shaped by class membership.
What fraction of households with incomes with incomes under $25,000 do not have access to internet?
Do people of similar backgrounds tend to intermarry?
What was the trend for America in the 20th century?
For religion to become less of a factor, & education to be more important.
What are some facts about college graduates & marriage?
Have a higher lifetime probability of marrying that do people w/o college degrees. Less likely to have child out of wedlock. Declining rate of divorce.
As far as behavior, what do lower class parents expect their children to do? What about middle class?
Lower class expect their children to to conform & comply. Middle Class encourages creativity.
According to Oscar Lewis, what do those living in poverty embrace that keep them in their lower class status?
He felt they embraced the values of the poor. Said they were unable to delay gratification or plan for the future. Blamed the poor for their poverty.
What did J. Wilson theorize was the reason for poverty?
The lack of opportunity, rather than the lack of motivation.
How is absolute poverty defined?
A lack of resources that is life-threatening. The UN defines poor as those whose earned income is less than $1/day; about 28% of the world's pop lives in poverty.