Flashcards in Ch 6 Deck (91):
What is it meant by "melting pot?"
That different cultures become blended into a uniquely "American culture."
To say that America is more like a tossed salad means what?
That diverse groups retain & share their distinctive subcultural flavors while living together in a larger society. Also known as Cultural Pluralism
What are some obvious elements of culture that are observable?
language, clothing, body adornment, music, dance, & arcihtecture
What does culture include?
Shared beliefs as well as behaviors
What does culture promote?
A sense of group solidarity
What does the dominant culture reflect?
It is a reflection of the power of its members as well as their numbers; the dominant culture is supported by society's social institutions.
Who are cultural minorities?
Recent immigrant groups with distinct languages & traditions, largely from non-European countries
Cultural minorities also include what groups?
African Americans who were brought over as slaves; Native Americans who owned land 1st.
Why have racial minority groups not been fully assimilated into the mainstream?
Because of their physical characteristics
Other disadvantaged groups consists of whom?
Gays, lesbians, disabled peopel
What is the purpose of recognized communities that many minorities have?
To protect the social identity of its members in the face of stigma
Many minorities are enriched by their what, & shared traditions?
What are the 3 categories of new arrivals to America?
Immigrants, refugees, & undocumented workers
Most come voluntarily, responding to "pull," & "push" factors. Pull factor-dreams of joining relatives, achieving success. Push factor: escaping squalor & starvation
What is a minority?
A population or group that shares a distinctive identity & is subjected to stigma, prejudice, discrimination, & oppression
Does minority automatically connote smaller #s?
No;rather a subordinate position in society.
Haitians are referred to as what?
Economic immigrants & are not welcome in the US
What are refugees?
Those forced from their home countries by war or political conditions; their lives would be endangered should they attempt to return.
Who are undocumented aliens?
Unskilled laborers who are here illegally trying to find work.
What advantage do light skinned newcomers have?
That of blending in with the majority group. Greater chance of becoming members of the dominant culture
Immigrants with darker skin received what than those w/lighter skin?
What other factors make assimilation easier?
Youth, education, bilingualism, the degree of similarity of the background culture to the mainstream culture.
What does cultural assimilation mean?
Being able to function on equal terms with the rest of society by understanding & following cultural norms
What does marital assimilation mean?
High rates of intermarriage between members of diff. groups
What does it mean to be bi-cultural?
Those individuals who are able to successfully negotiate more than one culture, usually the dominant one plus their own. Common for 1st generation refugees & immigrants; African American children who have been prepared to deal with negative encounters from dom. coulture
What is race based on?
Observations of physical differences
What is ethnicity characterized by?
Distinctions in language, customs, values, beliefs, holidays, music, food, etc. These are shared by people w/a common history, & @ one time a common geographic location.
Americans whose ancestors or who themselves came form non-European areas of the world & can be identified thru the color of their skin are referred to as what?
People of color
When did the idea of race begin?
When European explorers began encountering people who looked different than them
What are racial categories based on?
Physical characteristics; hair texture, facial features, skin color & body build
The dual influence of race or ethnicity & socioeconomic class status is what?
What is prejudice?
Negative attitudes often based on stereotypes
What is discrimination?
An unfavorable ACTION or treatment, directed towards a minority
A pattern of discrimination that is long term, systematic, & institutionalized is what?
Xenophobia is the fear of or contempt for what?
The beliefs & practices that favor native born citizens over immigrants is what?
A special advantage or benefit enjoyed by a group or population as the result of other;s oppression is known as?
This is the assumption that race makes no difference in people's lives
What does WASP stand for?
White Anglo Saxon Protestant
American emphasis on work is derived from?
A Puritan heritage that valued work for its own sake.
What is the Protestant work ethic recognized for?
The moral basis for the American capitalistic economic system & policies in social welfare
Work for economic gain is considered to be what?
The path to success, a sign of prosperity, & a moral obligation
What are some characteristics of American culture?
Belief in the importance of individual rights over those of the family, the collective, & community; competition & morality
What is the 2nd largest minority group in America?
What was The Great Migration?
African Americans left the South for the North, looking for better job opportunities
What is the enduring cultural bond Blacks brought from Africa?
Strong kinship bonds. More likely than whites to care for older adults & extended family. Grandparent caregivers most common in Afr. Amer pop
In the Afr. Amer. culture, what is most important after family?
What are central to the Afr. Amer culture?
Achievement & work orientation
Where do Arab Americans trace their ancestry?
22 countries in the Mid East
Tor F: Arab Americans are better educated & have higher median incomes than other Americans
What abolished discrimination based on national origin & ended 40 years of Asian exclusion?
The Immigration & Naturalization Act of 1965
The majority of South Asians who arrived in America since 1995 are what?
Educated, wealthy, & urban. Most are in the health care field
Most S.,Asians share what religious identities?
Hindu or Muslims
What is the difference between most immigrants and the Indochinese refugees?
The Indochinese refugees survived a stressful, frightening, & often traumatic escape to freedom
What does Confucianism teach?
The importance of maintaining social harmony; emphasizes a hierarchical or vertical order of society on the basis of age, gender, & social position
What does Buddhism stress?
The values of self-control, humility, generosity, mercy, & cultivating a correct life style
Why are Asian Americans often called the "model minority?"
B/c they seem to have succeeded economically, socially, & educationally without confrontations with the white majority
What can the economic success of Asian Americans be attributed to?
Cultural values such as self-discipline, an emphasis on education, & a strong entrepreneurial spirit
Who are the fastest growing minority group in America?
What state has the highest # of Latinos?
California; Latinos have a fertility rate that is about 40% higher than Americans. Cali also has largest amount of Native Americans
What is a unifying force among Latinos?
Dominance of the Spanish language
How can Latinos be divided?
Along lines of class, race, & culture
Hispanic is used mostly by?
What is preferred amongst most Latinos?
Is Hispanic & Latino a racial classification?
What does LaRoza mean and connote?
Means "the people," & connotes pride in the pluralistic Spanish, Native American & Mexican culture
The majority of Latinos in the US trace their roots to where?
How did most Cuban-Americans come to this country?
What is the most formal organization in the Latino community?
Latinos account for over a third of religion in the US?
What does familism mean to Latinos?
Pride or closeness in their families
Mexican American households are likely to be extended & include whom?
Brothers, sisters, cousins & members of the generation preceding the household head.
Undocumented Latino workers take what type of jobs?
Those that are unattractive to most Americans
What are remittances?
What Latinos often send back to family members in their country ($$)
The term Native American refers to whom?
Indigenous people who are native to the North Amer continent
How does the Federal Bureau of Indian Affairs define Native Americans?
A person whose blood is at least 1/4 Native American Indian
The term tribe is usually a designation for what?
Kinship; whereas a Nation has a political organization
Why are Native Americans considered an "invisible" minority (outside of Alaska)?
B/c they are concentrated in so few states and many live on reservations
What does the term Pan-Indianism refer to?
Intertribal social movements in which sevral tribes unite in common identity
Powwows are what?
Dancing, singing, competitions that are organized events that celebrate Native American culture & educate the general public
What does "white ethnic" refer to?
Immigrants from Europe whose language *& culture have differed from WASPs
What are the components of the Social Identity Theory?
1) we find it useful to categorize people, 2) we associate ourselves with certain groups (in-groups), & 3) we compare our group to other groups (out-groups) with a built-in bias favoring our group
What is the Functionalist Perspective on Understanding race & ethnicity?
That society functions better as a whole when everyone shares the same culture.; emphasizes how the parts of society are structured to maintain its stability.
What is the Conflict Perspective on race & ethnicity?
Argues that powerful people use prejudice & discrimination to hold onto their status in society by exploiting minorities.
What is the premise for the accusation of brain drain?
Conflict theorists say that the U.S promotes the immigration of skilled technicians & professionals away from their homes in developing nations where their talents are needed.
What is the Constructionist Perspective on race and ethnicity?
"race" is a social construct. Labels produce prejudice and lead to selective perception or filtering (they cause people to pay attention to certain things & ignore others)
What does the term internal colonialism used to describe?
Treatment of subordinate groups like colonial subjects by those in power
What were Jim Crow Laws?
Laws in the South that enforced segregation in housing, employment, education & all public accommodations
What are slave codes?
Laws developed to restrict the rights of slaves
What did "Brown vs. Board of Education" decide?
That separate but equal was unconstitutional