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Flashcards in Chp 7 Deck (44):

What is ascribed status?

social positions that are conferred at birth or assigned later in life, based on characteristics over which an individual has little or no choice.
Ex: Sex and disability of ascribed statuses.


What is achieved status?

within the control of the individual; they are assumed voluntarily as a result of personal choice or direct effort
Ex: Being a college graduate is a good example of an achieved status.


What is a privileges status?

Ex: White, Male, Heterosexual
Nondisabled (“temporarily abled”), Youthful, Attractive, tall and slim, Well-educated; articulate, Professionally employed


True or False: It is highly unlikely that a gay man or a person with cerebral palsy will grow up in a family and community made up of other gay men or people with cerebral palsy.



Sex refers to:

biological differences


Gender refers to:

differences that are culturally constructed and socially transmitted.


True or False:Children are socialized by their families, schools, peers, and the mass media to conform to culturally approved gender expectations



Functionalist Perspective and Social Stratification/Gender:

-division of labor b/w men & women is natural order
Complementary set of roles:
-men provide economic support & decision making
-women: care & emotional support
the roles of women & men ensure societal task are fulfilled
-traditional families are essential


Conflict Perspective on Social Stratification/ Gender:

-differences exist b/w men and women in physical, economic, and political power
- capitalism intensifies male domination b/c it creates more wealth
-Evidence of male domination in contemporary society is reflected in economic and political inequities, and gender–related violence


Construct Perspective on Social Stratification/ Gender:

-gender is socially constructed
- mankind use to refer to member of the human race leaving women out
-inclusive language is now encourages in professional writing
- political correctness, language shapes our view of reality
-The perception that only men were “family breadwinners” and women were working by choice (just for supplemental income) has changed.


What is gender-segregated/ sex typed work:

to a pattern of employment wherein men and women are found in different occupations


True/ False: A few women in contemporary American society actually fill two roles, as paid and unpaid workers, and are easily exploited in both

False: a majority of women


What is second shift?

refers to the childcare and housework responsibilities which women assume after returning home from their paid employment


True/ False: Among industrialized countries,
the United States ranks above
most other countries and above
only Japan in the gender salary

False: The US ranks below most other countries and above only Japan in the gender salary gap.


True/False: Approximately one-third of the women murdered in the United States each year are killed by an intimate partner



True/False: Majority of the worlds illiterate population is men

False: Majority of the worlds illiterate population is women


Sexual Orientation

a person’s preference in terms of partners in emotional-sexual relationships: same sex, other sex, or both sexes
Homosexuality = attraction to members of the same sex
Heterosexuality = attraction to members of the other sex



sexual attraction to people of both sex



People who feel they are one sex, even though they are the other


True/ False: 4% of male and 2% of female are exclusively homosexual



True/False: Homosexual activity or experiences are not the same thing as homosexual identity



Where do gay men and lesbians tend to live?

Generally gay men and lesbians find large urban centers to be more hospitable to sexual diversity than rural areas and large cities Ex: San Francisco


What is the essence of gay and lesbian cultures?

“To follow a different path openly and wholeheartedly rather than furtively, lesbians and gay men have created a culture in which homosexuality is the norm.”


Functionalist Perspective Sexual Orientation:

-Because functionalists assume a complementary set of roles for men and women, they do not see a legitimate place for sexual minorities in society
-In fact, they perceive them as a threat to traditional family arrangements
-Thus there is an absence of support for civil rights for gay men and lesbians.


Conflict Perspective Sexual Orientation

-Gays are routinely oppressed in American society.
-In defense of the idea of family conservatives will sacrifice individual rights of gays to preserve social standings
-Sodomy laws (making anal and oral sex illegal) were on the books in thirteen states until struck down by a U.S. Supreme Court decision in June 2003


Constructionist Perspective Sexual Orientation:

-Sexual orientation and socially approved sexual relationships are a social construction.
-Homosexuality is viewed as deviant lifestyle in the US- other countries are accepting
-Calling homosexual behavior a sin, impose moral judgement to justify discrimination


What is homophobia?

the unreasonable fear of homosexuals and homosexuality.


What is heterosexism?

the view that heterosexuality is “normal” and that any other pattern of intimate interpersonal relationship is inherently abnormal and/or morally wrong.

-widely tolerated in our society
-legally supported under most circumstances
-encouraged in some sectors


True/False: Was homosexuality seen as a mental disorder in the DSM?



True/False: There is no federal law prohibiting discrimination in the workplace on the basis of sexual orientation.



True/False: The vast majority of people with disabilities were born that way.

FALSE: The vast majority of individuals with disabilities were not born that way, but were injured in an accident or war, or suffer from the effects of an illness


True/False: Disabilities rates are highest for African Americans and American Indian and Alaska Natives



Where is disabilities more prevalent?

-People who are poor
-Those who have less education
-Those who are single
-African Americans
-Older adults


What is the signature wound of the Iraq War

Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)


Category 1 of disability

-Those that locate disability as internal to the individual professionals are looking for a cure, or at least a way to rehabilitate the individual. -They may expect the person with the disability to be compliant and passive.


Category 2 of disability

those definitions that situate the problem in the interaction between the disabled person and the social environment
-They establish disability not just as a personal problem but also as a challenge to society to change attitudes and remove barriers
-They see the person’s inability to function as the result of a handicapped environment
-They see disability as an element of human diversity


Deaf Community

-People in the Deaf Community perceive deafness not as a disability, but as a minority culture
-deaf children are routinely separated from their families to attend special residential schools for the deaf at an early age
-they are more likely to develop a unique and/or bicultural orientation to the world than are people with other kinds of disabilities


Functionalist Perspective Disability

-The functionalist perspective uses a medical model to explain the role of disability in society. A medical model suggests that pathology resides within the individual.
-From this perspective, people with disabilities are restricted to the role of chronic patient.
-They are perceived as being unable to work, or at least unable to work as productively as the able-bodied.
-Person w/ disability is viewed as a lack of fit b/w the person and the environment


Conflict Perspective Disability

- People with disabilities are treated as second class citizens.
-They are exploited by the health care industry.
-Categorizing them as “deserving poor” and giving them subsistence level grants does little to bring them to full inclusion in society.
-Restrictions of opportunities for schooling, employment, and housing continue to limit their options.
- Keeps people in a sub-servant position
-Caste System


Caste System

A form of social stratification in which one's status is lifelong and unchangeable


Constructionist Perspective Disability

-People with disabilities are sometimes perceived as dangerous,
-They are more often thought of as helpless, dependent, and incompetent, or even as “perpetual children”
-They are sometimes portrayed as heroes or heroines b/c they have overcome all obstacles to lead to a normal life


Master Status

describe a perceived social status that dominates all the other statuses a person holds.
Ex: disability is master status


Issue of Disabled Accessibility

-Many amenities for the handicapped are inadequate or poorly designed
-Braille labeling is seldom provided in public areas other than elevators
-Lack of convenient and accessible public transportation is a major impediment for many persons with disabilities


What states recognize same-sex marriage

6- Massachusetts, Connecticut, Iowa, Vermont, Maine, and New Hampshire