ch 6, 8, 19, 20 Flashcards Preview

General Sociology > ch 6, 8, 19, 20 > Flashcards

Flashcards in ch 6, 8, 19, 20 Deck (49):
1

socialization

the process where people learn the attitudes, values, and actions appropriate for members of a particular culture

how to behave

2

microsociology perspective on socialization

we learn how to behave "properly"
we learn what to expect from others

3

role of socialization

creates an ideal cultural standard
can help to shape our personality

4

the process of socialization in which a person "rehearses" for his/her future career, occupation, or relationship

anticipatory socialization

5

the process of getting rid of previous behavior patterns and accepting new ones as part of a transition in one's life

resocialization

6

specific ceremonies and celebrations that mark our stages of development

rites of passage

7

family, school, peer groups, mass media and technology, workplace, state and gov

agents of socialization

8

theory that culture completely determines behavior of everyone it socializes

cultural determinism

9

assumes human nature is plastic, and culture can form any type of personality or patterned role

cultural determinism

10

process by which roles determine how people are socialized

differential socialization

11

people are raised differently bc of different expectations of the roles they will preform

differential socialization

12

people's personalities change to fit their jobs better over time

adult socialization

13

going along with peers

conformity

14

compliance with higher authorities in a hierarchical structure

obedience

15

behavior that violates the standard of conduct or expectations of a group or society

deviance

16

the labels society uses to devalue members of certain social groups

stigma

17

techniques and strategies for preventing deviant behavior in any society

social control

18

used to casually enforce norms

informal social control

19

the more dependent members are on a group, the more they conform to group norms

principle of dependence

1 of 3 principles of informal social control

20

when group behavior is easily observed or monitored by other members, the degree of conformity will be greater

principle of visibility

2 of 3 principles of informal social control

21

the greater the scope and extent of norms upheld by the group, the greater will be the contribution to social order

principle of extensiveness

3 of 3 principles of informal social control

22

control that applies to legalized (formalized) rules and laws

formal social control

23

limit opportunities; early intervention

prevention

1 of 3 methods of formal social control

24

punishment must be perceived as certain, swift, and severe if it is to be effective detterents

deterrence

2 of 3 methods of formal social control

25

resocialize people so they stop wanting to deviate

reformation and resocialization

3 of 3 methods of formal social control

26

emphasizes that a person learns criminal behavior through interactions with others

cultural transmission deviance theory

27

process through which violation of rules results from exposure to attitudes that are favorable to criminal acts
ex. exposure to "wrong crowd"

differential association deviance theory

28

social relationships in a neighborhood or community affect people's behavior

social disorganization theory

29

when neighborhoods decline and become disorganized population leaves, building deteriorates, and crime rises

social disorganization theory

30

attempts to explain why certain people are viewed as deviants or "troublemakers" while others taking part in the same behavior are not

labeling theory

31

small, densely populated
poor transportation networks limit food supply distance
centers or disease and pollution
limited crime control
the attraction of citites

characteristics of pre industrial cities

32

What makes a city possible?

agricultural technology
division of labor
transportation

33

population of more than 2,500

urban

34

population of at least 50,000

city

35

small communities adjacent to cities

suburb

36

"mother city" a city and its sphere of influence

metropolis

37

centralized urban development; expansion along rail lines or "spider like" sprawl; city center is focal point; characteristic type of older industrial cities (eastern coast)

fixed rail metroplis

38

decentralized urban development (can't find downtown); expansion more even, determined by geography; suburbs are multiple points of focus; characteristic of newer cities (west coast)

freeway metropolis

39

"community" small town, rural type of lifestyle

gemeinschaft

40

"society or association" lack of cohesion, high fragmentation

gesellschaft

41

synonymous with rational organization, a group created to pursue definite goals

formal organization

42

tactics and procedures are designed and evaluated in terms of effectiveness in achieving goals

formal organization

43

a component of formal organizations where rules and ranked positions are used to achieve efficiency

bureaucracy

44

What is the limit of people a supervisor or manager can effectively manage?

7

45

stifles creativity
promote people to their level of incompetence
can discriminate against minorities and foster reverse discrimination

dysfunctions of bureaucracy

46

you end up staying in the job you don't do well

Peter Principle

47

when an organization's survival is threatened, stated goals may be replaces

goal displacement

aspect of a natural system

48

the members of an organization may not ascribe to the same goals

goal conflict

aspect of a natural system

49

persons may be able to utilize an informal network to circumvent the chain of command

informal relations