Ch. 6 Learning Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 6 Learning Deck (43):
0

Something that produces a reaction/ response

Stimulus

1

Type of learning that involves stimulus response connections

Conditioning

2

Simple form of learning in which a stimulus calls forth a response that is usually associated with another stimulus- something happens when something else happens

Classical Conditioning

3

Studied salivation in dogs to a stimulus

Pavlov's Dogs

4

Stimulus that causes a response that is automatic, not learned, natural

Unconditioned Stimulus(US)

5

Automatic response to whatever has caused it(caused by us)

Unconditioned response(UR)

6

Learned response to a stimulus that was previously neutral

Conditioned response(CR)

7

Learned stimulus for unconditional response

Conditioned stimulus(CS)

8

Learned avoidance of a particular food

Taste Acersions

9

Conditioned stimulus is disconnected from the unconditioned stimulus; conditioned response no longer occurs

Extinction

10

Displays response that were previously extinct; may come back in a weaker form

Spontaneous recovery

11

Responding that same way to stimuli that seem similar

Generalization

12

Act of responding differently to stimuli that are not similar to eachother

Discrimination

13

A person is exposed to the harmless stimuli until that fear is extinguished; effective but unpleasant

Flooding

14

People are taught relaxation techniques and are then gradually introduced to stimulus; takes longer and not as unpleasant

Systematic Desensitization

15

Pleasant stimulus is paired repeatedly with a fearful one, counteracting the fear

Counter conditioning

16

People learn to do actions because of the consequences; voluntary response

Operant conditioning

17

Process by which a stimulus increases the chance that the behavior will happen again

Reinforcement

18

Function due to biological needs; food, water

Primary reinforcers

19

Learned value; money, attention

Secondary reinforcers

20

Increase the frequency of the behavior when they are applied; food, fun activities, social approval

Positive reinforcers

21

Increase the behavior after they are removed; unpleasant in some way; discomfort, fear, social disapproval

Negative reinforcers

22

Given to increase frequency of behavior

Rewards

23

Unwanted events that decrease the frequency of the behavior; works only when guaranteed

Punishments

24

When and how often the reinforcement occurs

Schedules of Reinforcement

25

Reinforcement of behavior every time it occurs; maintains behavior only as long as reinforcement(reward) occurs; not always practical

Continuous Reinforcement

26

Behavior is not reinforced every time it occurs; behaviors tend to last longer

Partial reinforcement

27

Amount of time between reinforcements

Intervals

28

Number of correct responses

Ratio

29

A set amount of time must elapse between reinforcements; falls off after and picks up before(reinforcement)

Fixed-interval schedule

30

Varying amounts of time go by between reinforcements; unpredictable, therefore response rate is steadier

Variable-interval schedule

31

Reinforcement is provided after a fixed number of correct responses; if ratio is high, it's less effective

Fixed-ratio schedule

32

Reinforcement can come at any time; unpredictability keeps high response rate

Variable-ration schedule

33

Teaching complex behaviors by reinforcing small steps in total activity; no complete mastery

Shaping

34

Each step of a sequence must be learned before moving on; master each step before moving on

Chaining

35

Any task can be broken down into small steps for correct responses

Programmed learning

36

Think learning is purposeful, not mechanical

Cognitive psychologists

37

Learning that remains hidden until it is needed

Latent Learning

38

Acquiring knowledge and skills by observing and imitating others

Observational learning

39

Person observes a behavior and is later able to reproduce it; children imitating their parents

Modeling

40

Teacher draws attention to misbehavior, reinforcing bad behavior when they should reinforce good behavior. Teacher may need to separate them for the group. Peer approval is more powerful than teacher

Classroom discipline

41

People are rewarded to act correctly by earning awards, may stop bad behavior but when the token system ends, the bad behavior may reappear

Token economies

42

Identify behavior change, set a goal in a written document for new behavior and create a system of rewards and punishments(student-teacher agreement)

Personal contract