CH 7, 8, 9, 10 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in CH 7, 8, 9, 10 Deck (131):
1

environmental requirements that motivate behavior

demands

2

occurs when resources are inadequate to meet demands

strain

3

behavior to meet demands

coping

4

case of excessive strain; coping is inadequate.

stress

5

Physical Symptoms of Stress

allergies, colds, flu, headache, indigestion, sleep disturbances

6

Psychological Symptoms of Stress

anxiety, boredom, depression, feel helpless, irritable, negative mood.

7

Behavioral Symptoms of Stress

consumption of alcohol, nicotine, drugs, food (comfort foods), caffeine, wasting time, resting poorly.

8

low magnitude stressors

daily hassles (paying bills, getting gas, etc.)

9

Stressor Effects on the Immune System

Stressors reduce effectiveness of immune system and disease occurs.

10

Few hours after strenuous exercise the immune system is weak, which provides an open window for germs to invade and infect the body. Includes some psychological stressors as well.

Open Window Hypothesis

11

________ are preferred over _______ stressors – may determine the severity of stress.

Predictable stressors and unpredictable stressors

12

predictive stimulus allows for preparation of stress.

Preparatory response hypothesis

13

experienced by African Americans and other minorities is associated with stress and psychiatric symptoms

Racism as a Stressor.

14

4 ways racism can be a Stressor.

Cultural: practices of one group imposed on another
Institutional: policies ingrained in the organization
Individual: experienced personally
Collective: entire organization discriminates

15

With this sense, a person is inclined to smile, laugh, and be amused. It can help with stressor-appraisal and reduce the impact of stress. Moderates stress through the appraisal process, incompatible with feelings of distress, enhances positive moods, and increases social networks

Sense of Humor

16

students experience more stress at semester's end than do non practicing students. Worsens the impact of time related stressors.

Procrastination

17

With this personality trait, a person sees life events as challenging, feels in control, and is committed to various activities

Hardiness

18

desire that problem will go away

wishful thinking

19

trying to forget about the problem

distancing

20

interpreting the problem in a positive light

Emphasizing the Positive

21

realization that you are responsible for your actions and their consequences

Self-blame

22

coping strategies that make the person feel better

Tension Reduction

23

keep other people ignorant of their problems or avoid people in general.

Self-Isolation

24

environment or person characteristics that alter the relationship between the stressor and stress; can make the person either more or less vulnerable to life events

Moderating variables

25

Drive is the persistent internal pushing action of physiological need. It energizes behavior and has a unique feel used to guide behavior. Drive is considered to be unpleasant since humans are motivated to reduce drive to rid oneself of any painful or unpleasant feelings.

Hull’s Drive Theory

26

-The more intense the drive, the more intense the behavior; energizes behavior.
- Each drive has its own unique internal sensations that serve as internal stimuli for guiding behavior (difference between hunger and thirst).
- Drive motivates the individual to behave in order to reduce its intensity.

Hull’s drive theory

27

motivation aimed at achieving predictable relationships between individuals and their physical and social environments.

Need for meaning.

28

-Refers to a desire to understand one's experiences by thinking about them.
-Includes individuals who have a high need for and enjoy analytical thinking
-Usually have less boredom because they enjoy thinking and rely on their own internal stimulation and therefore become less bored

Need for cognition

29

motive to establish, maintain, or restore positive social relationships.

Need for affiliation

30

This emphasizes positive feelings that exist between individuals; not the alleviation of anxiety from the absence of relationship.

Intimacy Motive

31

measure need for affiliation and show statements about loneliness or ways of preserving social relationships.

TAT cards

32

1st of Maslow's theory of needs and example

Physiological - homeostasis, food, water, etc.

33

2nd of Maslow's theory of needs and example

Safety - absence of fear, anxiety, and chaos, and presence of security, stability, dependency, and law and order.

34

3rd of Maslow's theory of needs and example

Belongingness – relationships with friends and family

35

4th of Maslow's theory of needs and example

Esteem – respect of others and self.

36

Last of Maslow's theory of needs and example

Self-actualization – fulfill and utilize one’s talents and abilities to the fullest.

37

need to achieve or motive to achieve success (Ms) is a disposition to engage in task-oriented or achievement behavior; to do it well with a high internal standard of excellence.

Achievement Motivation

38

Achievement behavior depends on the strength of Motivation for Success (Ms), Maf, the incentive value of success and of failure, and the probability of success and of failure.

Achievement Motivation Theory

39

Measuring Need to Achieve

Responses to Thematic Apperception Test pictures are scored for competition with a standard of excellence, a unique accomplishment, and long-term involvement. Strength of the responses depends on the strength of the need and the intensity of the pictures instigating force.

40

The power motive means to influence others, be in charge, or have a high status. TAT pictures are used to activate and measure this need.

Measuring Need for Power

41

People place themselves in positions of power legitimately. These include running for office, teacher, executive, psychologist, write letters to editor, own trappings of power, and exploit others.

Characteristics of Need for Power

42

individuals are more likely to be in successful occupations that allow for the legitimate exercise of power.

Expressing Need for Power

43

-Usually place a greater amount of importance on status and wealth
-More likely to exploit people of the opposite sex, to drink, gamble, and use drugs.
-College educated men usually have a wife with less professional careers than their own.

Need for Power examples.

44

you are a worthy person as good as others.

Self-esteem

45

you have intimate contact with people you care about and who care about you.

Relatedness

46

you are the cause of your actions rather than at the mercy of external forces or pressures

Autonomy

47

capable and effective in your actions; not incompetent.

Competence

48

consistent way of behaving as a result of the interaction between temperament characteristics and social experience.

Personality

49

consistent individual differences in emotionality; results from genetically inherited characteristics

Temperament

50

consistency in a specific set of behaviors across time and across relevant situations. Traits “cause” people to react differently to situations and “cause” them to approach or avoid different situations.

Personality traits

51

Five Factor Model of personality

O.C.E.A.N
Openness to experience
Conscientiousness
Extraversion
Agreeableness
Neuroticism

52

Shallow, simple, unintelligent---------------------Artistic, clever, curious

Openness to experience

53

Careless, disorderly, forgetful-------------cautious, deliberate, dependable

Conscientiousness

54

Quiet, reserved, shy----------------------------- active, assertive, dominant

Extraversion

55

Cold, cruel, unfriendly-------------------------- Affectionate, cooperative, friendly

Agreeableness

56

Calm, contented, unemotional---------------------------- anxious, emotional, moody

Neuroticism

57

involves the seeking of new, complex, and intense sensations and willingness to take various risks for the sake of such experiences

Sensation Seeking

58

Four factors involved in sensation seeking

Thrill and adventure seeking, Experience Seeking, Disinhibition, Boredom susceptibility

59

desire for sensations induced by participating in risky activities.

Thrill and adventure seeking

60

desire for mental and sensory stimulation from art, travel, drugs, and music.

Experience Seeking

61

desire for variety attained by drinking, partying, gambling, sexual activity, and other hedonic pursuits.

Disinhibition

62

aversion to boredom resulting in restlessness and low tolerance to repetitive activities.

Boredom susceptibility

63

a trait is defined by the procedure used to measure it, such as the use of various psychological scales

Operational definition

64

used as correlates to provide definition for and proof of a trait’s existence.

Others’ assessments and self assessments

65

personality traits are correlated with physiological variables (i.e., changes in heart rate, sweat, saliva production etc.)

Psychophysiology

66

personality traits are correlated with brain and neurotransmitter activity (i.e., MAO and negative correlation with high sensation seekers).

Neuropsychology

67

close genetic relationship between individuals indicates a stronger correlation between their big five personality traits and extraversion (i.e., twin, sibling, adoption studies)

Behavioral Genetics

68

how a person reacts to a situation depends on the amount of a personality trait she possesses.

Trait-environment interaction

69

the situation or activity a person selects depends on the amount of a personality trait she possesses.

Trait-environment correlation

70

Extraversion-Environment Interaction

Compared to introverts, extraverts are easier to put into a good mood, more satisfied with their social relationships, more sensitive to humor, and more successful at work

71

personality traits channel or convey how psychological motives are represented and satisfied.

Channeling Hypothesis

72

level of extraversion determines how a person’s affiliation motive is satisfied. It is satisfied by volunteer work for extraverted women.

Channeling Expression of Affiliation Motive

73

level of extraversion determines how a person’s power motive is satisfied. Women graduates of Mills college entered high impact (power) careers.

Channeling Expression of Power Motive

74

High neuroticism individuals are easier to put in a bad mood and experience more negative moods in various aspects of life.

Neuroticism-Environment Interaction

75

High neuroticism individuals are more likely to drink to cope with negative social interactions and engage in risky behaviors to cope.

Neuroticism-Environment Correlation

76

refer to good and bad behavior consequences.

Reinforcers and punishers

77

motivate behavior towards the goal

Incentives

78

received to change behavior

reinforcers

79

Behavior is selected for and becomes more likely. Example: Past passing grade, parental approval, and pride.

Reinforcer

80

Motivates approach behavior to attain the incentive
Example: Anticipated passing grade, parental approval, and pride.

Positive Incentive

81

Behavior is selected against and becomes less likely. Example: Past failing grade, parental disapproval, and shame

Punisher

82

Motivates avoidance behaviors to prevent occurrence of incentive
Example: Anticipated failing grade, parental disapproval, and shame.

Negative Incentive

83

attractiveness of incentive based on objective properties, e.g., number or amount

Incentive value

84

individual's personal appraisal of objective value.

Subjective value

85

satisfaction, pleasure, or usefulness of an economic good or incentive.

Utility

86

relationship between objective and subjective incentive value is such that equal increases in objective value, produces smaller and smaller increases in subjective value.

Fechner's law

87

the quantity or number of incentives increases motivation.

amount

88

-In a choice between two VI reinforcement schedules, pigeons will distribute their responses to match the % of reinforcement that schedule provides.
-Incentives motivate behavior but also help determine choice. Choice is influenced by the value of the available incentives

Choice between Simultaneous Reinforcers

89

This source of intrinsic motivation aids in exploring and learning about the environment.

Curiosity

90

This source of intrinsic motivation is the motive for a child to actively interact and control one's environment.

Effectance Motivation

91

This feature of intrinsic motivation provides the desirable feeling from being involved in a challenging activity that matches one's skills

Flow

92

From external rewards at one end, to various shades of internalized motives in the middle, to intrinsically motivated at the other end.

Continuum of Extrinsic to Intrinsic Motivation

93

behavior is coerced by external sources, e.g., money, good grades, or approval of others.

Extrinsic motivation

94

behavior not coerced by external sources; the motivation is inherent in the activity being performed. Motivated behavior that occurs when there is no obvious external consequence as a result of the behavior

Intrinsic motivation

95

Examples of physical stress symptoms

Allergies, colds, diarrhea, flu, headaches, pain, sleep disturbances, etc.

96

Examples of psychological stress symptoms

anxiety, boredom, depression, irritability, low self esteem, low self confidence, etc..

97

Examples of stress induced maladaptive behaviors

drinking more alcohol, coffee, cola, drugs, poor diet, not enough rest or more than usual, passively filling time

98

Naturally that which produces stress

stressor

99

A signal preceding a biologically relevant event allows the organism to prepare for that event,

Preparatory response hypothesis

100

Effects of cumulative stressors

Stress can build up and take over one's ability to cope.

101

Event that threatens a person or others with death or serious injury

Cataclysmic stressor

102

Stress related to being treated differently due to race

racism as a stressor

103

People with higher stress levels are ____ likely to get sick.

MORE

104

A few hours after strenuous exercise the immune system is suppressed and allows an "open window" for a virus or bacteria to inavde and infect the body.

Open-window hypothesis

105

a potential event is evaluated as to whether or not it is relevant, benign, positive or stressful

Primary Appraisal

106

Assessing what strategies can meet the demands of life events

secondary appraisal

107

The body's physiological reaction to all stressors occurs in three stages. Alarm, Resistance and Exhaustion

General Adaptation Syndrome

108

body’s first and generalized response to a stressor – sympathetic Nervous system arousal increases and stress hormones are released such as norepinephrine, epinephrine, and glucocorticoid. These hormones change glands, shrink the thymus gland and produce stomach ulcers. Suppress immune system too.

Alarm

109

- body is successfully controlling the stress. More resistant to stressor but more vulnerable to new stressors. Uses adaptation energy to defend against the stressor

Resistance

110

person runs out of adaptation energy and ability to combat stress becomes completely exhausted, resulting in death. Levels of stress hormones in blood stream rise and they become sources of stress themselves

Exhaustion

111

Hereditary and biological factors play more of a role in determining...
-Is fixed

Temperament

112

Social factors play more of a role in determining...
-Can be altered

personality

113

Brain enzyme that is a reliable marker for sensation seeking

Monoamine oxidase (MAO)

114

How a person reacts to the environment depends on the amount of a particular rate they possess.

Trait-environment interaction

115

Trait and environments are associated in their effects on behavior because personality traits determine the situations a person chooses or alters.

trait-environment correlation

116

the subjective value of an incentive loss is greater than the subjective value of an incentive gain.

incentive delay interval

117

-Contrast of Incentive Amount
-Hedonic Contrast

Contrast Effects

118

-subjective feelings that accompany incentive contrast.
-Positive contrast produces pleasant feelings.
-Negative contrast produces unpleasant feelings.

Hedonic Contrast

119

-The ability of incentives to motivate behavior increases with the amount it contrasts with a prior incentive.
-Positive contrast is an upward shift incentive value.
-Negative contrast is a downward shift.

Contrast of Incentive Amount

120

when a person is consistently directed toward an extrinsic or intrinsic source of motivation as measured by the Work Preference Inventory.

Motivational orientation

121

-An extrinsic incentive can decrease the intrinsic value of an activity.
-Cognitive evaluation theory: reason for behavior is attributed to external incentive but when the incentive is removed, interest declines.

Extrinsic Reward and Intrinsic Motivation

122

Consequences are tangible, Effects of choice is perceptible, High probability of expected outcome, Certain of what outcomes will be

Outcome for immediate incentives

123

Consequences are intangible, Effects of choice is imperceptible, Low probability of expected outcome, Uncertain what outcomes will be

Outcome for delayed incentives

124

At longer-delay intervals, a larger incentive is preferred over smaller incentive; as delay-interval decreases, preference reverses and smaller incentive is preferred.

Preference Reversal

125

Also known as temporal discounting, occurs when a future incentive is represented in the present at a marked down value.
Incentive value = (Amount of incentive)/(1+Delay interval).

Delay Discounting

126

Often immediate outcomes are tangible and concrete, while delayed outcomes are intangible and abstract.

Intangible consequences of choice

127

Openness to experience measurements

Shallow, simple, unintelligent---------------------Artistic, clever, curious

128

Conscientiousnes measurements

Careless, disorderly, forgetful-------------cautious, deliberate, dependable

129

Extraversion measurements

Quiet, reserved, shy----------------------------- active, assertive, dominant

130

Agreeableness Measurements

Cold, cruel, unfriendly-------------------------- Affectionate, cooperative, friendly

131

Neuroticism Measurements

Calm, contented, unemotional---------------------------- anxious, emotional, moody