Ch. 9 Joints Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 9 Joints Deck (51):
1

Amphiarthrosis

slightly movable joint

2

Diarthrosis

freely moveable joint; these come in a variety of shapes and several different types of movement
- synovial joints

3

Fiborous Joints

joints formed by a solid mass of connective tissue between neighbouring joints; have connective tissue masses of dense irregular connective tissue
- immovable or only slightly movable
- no joint cavity (synovial fluid)
- sutures, syndesmoses, interosseous membrane

4

Synovial Joints

- freely moveable articulations
- joints the incorporate a lubricated cavity called a synovial cavity that is surrounded by a connective tissue capsule that connects articulating bones
- slightly moveable to the most mobile joints of the body
-ex. carpal bones and shoulder joint

5

Ligaments

- dense irregular or regular connective tissue that bind one bone to another bone
- intrinsic binding structures within joint or as extrinsic supporting bands that stabilize joints while limiting range of motion
- ex. sutural or periodontal ligaments

6

Sutures

- fibrous joint composed of a thin layer of dense irregular tissue called sutural ligament, binds bones together
- between bones of the skull
- immovable or slightly movable in infants and children
- important role in growth and shock absorption in the skull

7

Syndesmoses (gomphosis)

- found between the proximal and distal ends of leg bones, and between teeth and alveolar process (gum)
- fibrous joint in which there is a greater distance between the articulating surfaces and more dense irregular connective tissue than suture
- arranged as a bundle (Interosseous ligament) and joint permits limited movement

8

Interosseous Membranes

- fibrous joints and is a substantial sheet of dense irregular tissue that binds neighbouring long bones and permits slight movement
- occur between the radius and the ulna in forearm and between the tibia and fibula of the leg
- help hold adjacent bones together and define the range of motion between the neighbouring bones and provide increased attachment surface for muscles and provide movements of the digits

9

Cartilaginous Joints

- solid connective tissue that allows little or no movement (synarthroses)
- articulating bones are tightly connected, either by hyaline or by fibrocartilage
- lack joint cavity
- 2 types (synchondroses and symphyses)

10

Synchondroses

- is immovable, cartilaginous joint in which connecting material is hyaline cartilage
- found between epiphysis and diaphysis of growing bones
- temporary; upon completion of bone growth, these joints ossify
- ex. epiphyseal plate; when bone stopes growing in length, bone replaces the hyaline cartilage, and the synchondrosis becomes a synostosis or bony joint

11

Symphasis

- cartilaginous joint in which the ends of the articulating bones are cover with hyaline cartilage, but the bones are connected by a broad, flat disc of fibrocartilage
- symphasis pubis and manubrium and sternum (midline of body)
-helps provide the limited range of motion in the vertebral column while serving as an important shock-absorbing pad between vertebral bodies

12

Articular Cartilage

- cover bone surface within the capsule of a synovial joint covered by hyaline cartilage
- covers the articulating surfaces of the bones but does not bind them together
- reduces friction between bones in the joint during movement and helps absorb shock

13

Articular (joint) capsule

-surrounds a synovial joint, encloses the synovial cavity, and unites the articulating bones
- composed of two layers, outer fibrous membrane and an inner synovial membrane

14

Fibrous Membrane

-consists of dense irregular connective tissue that attaches to the periosteum of the articulating bones; it is literally a thickened continuation of the periosteum between the two bones
- permits movement at a joint, and its great tensile strength help prevents bones from dislocating

15

Synovial Membrane

- inner layer of the articular capsule
- composed of thin arrangement of synovial cells on the surface and areolar connective tissue with elastic Fibers beneath
- includes accumulations of adipose tissue; thicker regions are called articular fat pads

16

Synovial Fluid

- secreted from synovial membrane which forms a thin film over the surfaces within the articular capsule
- consists of hyaluronic acid secreted by the synovial cells in the synovial membrane and interstitial fluid filtered from blood plasma
- reduces friction by lubricating joint and absorbing shock, also supplies oxygen and nutrients to the chondrocytes within articular cartilage

17

Synovial Joint Structure

Articular Capsule: surrounds a synovial joint
Articular Cartilage: covers end of the bone at joint
Synovial Membrane: covers synovial joint
Synovial Fluid: facilitates lubrication
Ligament: attached bones at joint
Joint Cavity: secrete synovial fluid

18

Synarthrosis

immovable joint
- fibrous and cartilaginous

19

Bursae

-fluid-filled saclike structures designed to reduce friction between adjacent tissues which can create considerable friction
- ex. synovial joints

20

Tendon (synovial) Sheaths

- tubular-shaped bursae

21

Meniscus

-partially divide the joint

22

Articular Disc

- fibrocartilage structures that divides the synovial cavity into two smaller cavities
ex. temporamandibular joint

23

Planar (gliding) Joint

- allow side-to-side and back-and-forth, rotation, with slight movement
- simplest type of join movement
- surfaces nearly flat or slightly concave/convex
- biaxial or triaxial
ex. intercarpal and intertarsal joints and sternoclavicular

24

Hinge Joint

- uniaxial, movement in one plane
- convex surface fits into concave of articulating bone
- most common synovial joint
- allow flexion and extension
ex. elbow joint (between trochlea of humerous; trochlear notch of ulna), knee, tarsal, interphalangeal joints

25

Pivot Joint

- uniaxial; rotation about a central axis
- rounded bone fits in depression of another
ex. between head of radius; notch of ulna

26

Condyloid Joint

- oval convex surface of one bone articulates with concave articular surface of the second bone
- biaxial; flexion-extension, adduction-abduction
ex. metacarpophalangeal (MP) joints

27

Saddle Joint

- modified condyloid joint; saddle-shaped
- allows more range of motion
- also found between incus and malleus
ex. carpometacarpal (thumb)
- multiaxial

28

Ball and Socket Joint

- multiaxial joint, provides greatest range of motion
- rounded surface and cup-like socket
ex. glenohumeral (shoulder), Coxal joints

29

Types of Movements at Synovial Joints

1. Angular: change in angle at joint
2. Circular: movement of body around axis
3. Special: movement of body laterally, medially, up or down

30

Gliding Movements

- movement of relatively flat bone surfaces back and forth and side to side over one another; little change in angle between bones

31

Flexion/ Extension

- opposite movements between articulating bones; sagittal plane
- angle between articulating bones increases

32

Lateral Flexion

movement between intervertebral joints; usually in the frontal plane

33

Hyperextension

- extension past the anatomical plane, usually in sagittal plane
- >180

34

Abduction/ Adduction

movement away from midline in a lateral direction vs moves body part toward the trunk; usually in a frontal plane

35

Circumduction

movement of the distal end of a body part in a circle (angular movement)

36

Dorsiflexion and Plantar Flexion

- pressing foot upward
- pressing foot downward

37

Supination and Pronation

- movement of forearm in which the palm is tuned interiorly
- movement of forearm where the palm is tuned posteriorly

38

Eversion

sole of the foot turns to face laterally

39

Inversion

sole turns medially

40

Elevation

is the superior movement of the body part

41

Depression

is the inferior movement of the body part

42

Protraction

movement of a body part anteriorly in a horizontal plane

43

Retraction

posteriorly directed movement of a protracted part to assume anatomic position

44

Rotation

- permitted in joints where a rounded or oval surface articulates with a depression on another bone
- relative to the midline

45

Alanto-occipital

- between superior articular facets of atlas and occipital condyles of occipital bone
- synovial and freely moveable
- flexion and extension of head and slight lateral flexion of head to either side

46

Alanto-axial

- between dens of axis and anterior arch of atlas and between lateral masses of atlas and axis
- synovial (pivot) between dens and anterior arch, and synovial (plane) between lateral masses
- rotation of head

47

Intervertebral

- between vertebral bodies and between vertebral arches
- cartilaginous (symphysis) between vertebral bodies, and synovial (plane) between vertebral arches
- flexion, extension, lateral flexion, and rotation of vertebral column

48

Vertebrocostal

- between facets of heads of ribs and facets of bodies of adjacent thoracic vertebrae and intervertebral discs between them and between articular part of tubercles of ribs and facets of transverse processes of thoracic vertebrae
- synovial (plane) and freely moveable
- slight gliding

49

Sternocostal

- between sternum and first seven pairs of ribs
- cartilaginous (synchondrosis) between sternum and first pair of ribs, and synovial (plane) between sternum and second through seventh pairs of ribs
- immovable between sternum and first pair of ribs, freely movable between sternum and second and on ribs
- no movement between sternum and first rib; slight gliding between sternum and second and on ribs

50

Intercarpal

- between proximal row of carpal bones, distal row of carpal bones, and between both rows of carpal bones
- synovial (plane), except for hamate, scaphoid, and lunate which is saddle
- gliding plus flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, and slight rotation at midcarpal joint

51

Carpometacarpal

- joint of thumb between trapezium of carpus and first metacarpal; carpometacarpal joints of remaining digits formed between carpus and second through fifth metacarpals
- synovial (saddle) at thumb and plane at remaining digits
- flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, and gliding at remaining digits