Ch. 1 Introduction Flashcards Preview

Human Anatomy > Ch. 1 Introduction > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch. 1 Introduction Deck (134):
1

Physiology

study of the function of body parts

2

Structural Organization: Chemical Level

atoms combine to make molecules

3

Cellular Level

molecules combine to form cells (structural & functional unit of organism), ex. nerve cell, muscle cell

4

Tissue Level

groups of cells and the material surrounding them that perform a specific function

5

Four types of tissue

Epithelial tissue: covers the body surface and the line body cavities
ex. inner lining of the digestive system
Connective: support, connect and interconnects body parts and organs
ex. bone, cartilage
Muscular: attachment and movement
ex. cardiac, smooth, skeletal
Nervous: generates nerve impulses for internal communication
ex. CNS and PNS

6

Organ Level

Different types of tissue are joined together to perform specific functions
ex. heart, stomach, liver

7

System Level

consists of related organs with a common function
ex. digestive system

8

Organismal Level

Any living individual, all the parts of the body functioning together (11 organ systems)

9

Skeletal System

206 bones
Components: bones and joints of the body and their associated cartilages
Function: supports and protects the body;
provides a surface area for muscle attachments;
aids body movement;
houses cells that produce blood cells;
stores minerals and lipids

10

Muscular System

Components: skeletal muscle tissue, muscle usually attached to bones, smooth and cardiac muscle
Functions: participates in bringing about body movements, maintaining posture and produces heat

11

Cardiovascular System

Component: Heart, blood, and blood vessels
Function: Heart pumps blood through blood vessels, carries oxygen and nutrients to cells and carbon dioxide and wastes away from cells and helps regulate acid-base balance, temperature, and water content of body fluids; blood components help defend against disease and repair damaged blood vessels

12

Lymphatic System

Component: Lymphatic fluid, lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, spleen, thymes, and tonsils, cells that carry out immune responses (B cells)
Function: returns proteins and fluid to blood; carries lipids from gastrointestinal tract to blood; contains sites of maturation and proliferation of B cells and T cells that protect against disease-causing microbes

13

Nervous System

Components: Brain, spinal cord, nerves, and special sense organs
Function: Generates action potentials to regulate body activities; detects changes in the body's internal and external environments, interprets the changes, and responds by causing muscular contractions or glandular secretions

14

Endocrine System

Components: hormone-producing glands (pineal gland, hypothalamus, pituitary gland, thymus, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, adrenal glands, pancreas, ovaries, and testes) and hormone-producing cells in several other organs
Function: regulates body activities by releasing hormones, which are chemical messengers transported in blood from an endocrine gland or tissue to a target organ

15

Respiratory System

Components: lungs and air passageways such as the pharynx (throat), larynx (voice box), trachea (windpipe), and bronchial tubes within the lungs
Function: Transfers oxygen from inhaled air to blood and carbon dioxide from blood to exhaled air; helps regulate acid-base balance of body fluids air flowing out of lungs through vocal cords produces sound

16

Digestive System

Components: organs of gastrointestinal tract- a long tube that includes the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, and anus; also salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas
Function: Activates physical and chemical breakdown of food, eliminates solid wastes; absorbs nutrients

17

Urnuary System

Components: kidneys, Ureters, Urinary bladder, Urethra
Function: produces, stores and eliminates urine; eliminates wastes and regulates volume and chemical composition of blood; helps maintain the acid-base balance of body fluids; maintain's body's mineral balance; helps regulate production of red blood cells

18

Reproductive System

Components: Gonads (testes and ovaries), and associated organs (uterus, fallopian tubes, uterine tube, and vagina in female and epididymis, seminal vesicles, prostate, ductus deferences, and penis in male)
Function: gonads produce gametes (sperm or oocytes) that unite to form a new organism, gonad also release hormones

19

Anatomy

study of the structure and the relationship amoung structures

20

Integumentary System

Components: skin, and structures associated with it, such as hair, fingernails, and toenails, sweat glands, and oil glands and the subcutaneous layer
Function: Protects the body; helps regulate body temperature; eliminates wastes; helps make vitamin D; and detects sensations; stores fat and provides insultation

21

Six characteristics that set living from nonliving

Metabolism, responsiveness, movement, growth, differentiation, reproduction

22

Anatomical Poistion

is a standard of reference for the description of anatomical structures, stands erect facing the observer with the head level and the eyes facing directly forward. lower limbs are parallel and upper limbs are at the sides with the palms facing forward

23

Prone position

lying face down

24

Supine position

body is lying face up

25

Regional Names

head: skull and face
neck: supports head and attaches to trunk
trunk: consists of neck, thorax, abdomen, and pelvis
upper limbs: shoulder, armpit, arm, forearm, wrist, and hand
lower limbs: buttock, thigh, leg, ankle, and foot

26

Planes

imaginary flat surfaces that pass through the body

27

Sagittal Plane

is a vertical plane that divides the body or organ into right and left sides

28

Midsagittal Plane

sagittal plane that passes through the midline of the body and divides it into equal right and left sides

29

Parasagittal Plane

sagittal plane that divides the body into unequal right and keft sides

30

Frontal/coronal Plane

divides the body or an organ into front and back portions

31

Transverse Plane/ cross-sectional/ horizontal

divides the body or an organ into upper (superior) and lower (inferior) portions

32

Oblique Plane

passes through the body or organ at an oblique angle

33

Directional Terms

words that describe the position of one body part relative to another

34

Cranial

relating to the skull; toward the head

35

Rostral

relating to the nose and mouth region; toward the face

36

Caudal

Relating to the tail; at or near the tail or posterior part of the body

37

Anterior

Nearer to or at the front of the body

38

Posterior

nearer to or at the back of the body

39

Ventral

relating to the back side of the body; toward the belly

40

Dorsal

relating to the back side of the body; toward the back

41

Medial

nearer to the midline (imaginary vertical line that divides the body)

42

Lateral

Farther from the midline

43

Intermediate

between two structures

44

Ipsilateral

On the same side of the body's midline as another structure

45

Contralateral

On the opposite side of the body's midline from another structure

46

Proximal

Nearer to the attachment of a limb to the trunk; farther from the origination of a structure

47

Distal

Farther from the attachment of a limb to the trunk; farther from the origination of a structure

48

Superficial

toward or on the surface of the body

49

Deep

away from the surface of the body

50

Body Cavities

spaces within the body that house internal organs, bones muscles and ligaments separate the various body cavities from one another

51

Cranial Cavity

formed by cranial bones and contains the brain

52

Vertebral (spinal) canal

formed by vertebral column and contains spinal cord and the beginnings of spinal nerves

53

Meninges

three protective layers of tissue and a shock-absorbing fluid around the brain and spinal cord

54

Thoracic Cavity

chest cavity; contains the ribs, muscles of the chest, the sternum, aand the thoracic portion of the vertebral column

55

Pleural cavityPleurae (serous sacs)

a potential space between the layers of the pleura that surrounds a lung

56

Mediastinum

central portion of thoracic cavity between the lungs; extends from sternum to vertebral column and from first rib to diaphragm; contains heart, thymus, esophagus, trachea, and several large blood vessels

57

Pericardial Cavity

a potential space between the layers of the pericardium that surrounds the heart

58

Diaphragm

dome-shaped muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominopelvic cavity

59

Abdominopelvic Cavity

extends from the diaphragm to the groin and is encircled by the abdominal muscle wall and the bones and the muscles of the pelvis

60

Abdominal Cavity

superior portion, contains the kidneys, adrenal glands, stomach, spleen, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, small intestine, and most of the large intestine

61

Pelvic Cavity

inferior portion, contains the urinary bladder, portions of the large intestine, and internal organs of the reproductive system

62

Viscera

organs inside the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities

63

Membrance

thin pliable tissue that covers, lines, partitions or connects structures

64

Serous Membrane

slippery double-layered membrane associated with body cavities that does not open directly to the exterior

65

Parietal Layer

part of the serious membrane, a thin epithelium that lines the walls of body cavities

66

Visceral Layer

a thin epithelium that covers and adheres to the viscera within the body cavities, form a serious sac with the parietal layer

67

Pleura

serous membrane associated with the lungs

68

visceral pluera

clings to the surface of the lungs

69

parietal pleura

lines the chest wall and covers the superior surface of the diaphragm

70

Pericardium

serous membrane of the heart

71

Visceral Pericardium

covers the surface of the heart

72

Parietal Pericardium

lines the fibrous pericardium that surrounds the heart

73

Pericaridal Cavity

serous cavity which contains a small amount of lubricating serous fluid

74

Peritoneum

the serous membrane of the abdominal cavity

75

Visceral Pertioneum

covers the abdominal viscera

76

Parietal Peritoneum

covers the abdominal viscera

77

Parital Peritoneum

lines the abdonimal wall and covers the inferior surface of the diaphragm

78

Peritoneal Cavity

serous cavoty which contains a small amount of lubricating serous fluid

79

Intraperitoneal

abdominal organs surrounded by the peritoneum, including stomach, spleen, liver, gallbaldder, jejunum, ileum of the small intestine, and the cecum, appendix, and transverse colon of the large intestine

80

Retroperitoneal

covered partially by peritoneum and lie behind the peritoneum, the kidneys, adrenal glands, pancreas, duodenum of the small intestine, ascending, and the abdominal aorta and inferior vena cava are the organs

81

subcostal line

top horizontal line drawn inferior to the rib cage

82

Transtubercular Line

bottom horizontal line drawn inferior to the tops of the hip bones

83

midclavicular lines

drawn through the midpoints of the clavicles, just medial to the nipples

84

Names of 9 abdominopelvic regions

right hypochondriac, epigastric, left hypochondriac, right lumbar, umbilical, left lumbar, right inguinal, public, left inguinal

85

Epigastric Region Contains

right and left lobes of liver, stomach, gall bladder, transverse colon of the large intestine

86

Umbilical Region Contains

part of the transverse colon, part of the small intestine, branches of the blood vessels to the lower limb

87

Hypogastric/public Region Contains

part of the small intestine, urinary bladder, sigmoid colon of the large intestine

88

Right Hypochondriac Contains

part of the liver, gallbladder, part of the right kidney

89

Left Hypochondriac

part of the stomach, spleen, part of the left kidney, left colic flexure of the large intestine

90

Right Lumbar Region Contains

ascending colon, right colic flexure of the large intestine, superior part of the cecum, part of the right kidney, part of the small intestine

91

Left Lumbar Region Contains

the descending colon, part of the left kidney, part of the small intestine

92

Right Inguinal Region

the inferior end of the cecum, the appendix, part of the small intestine

93

Left Inguinal Region Contains

junction of part of the colon, part of the small intestine

94

Nine Region use vs Quadrant Use

anatomical studies to determine organ location vs. used by clinicians for describing the site of abdominopelvic pain, tumour, injury, or other abnormality

95

Cephalic

head
- cranial and facial

96

Cervical

Neck

97

Otic

Ear

98

Buccal

cheek

99

Mental

chin

100

Sternal

Brestbone

101

Axillary

armpit

102

Brachial

arm

103

Antecubital

front of elbow

104

Antebrachial

forearm

105

Carpal

wrist

106

Palmar or Volar

Palm

107

Digital or Phalangeal

fingers

108

Femoral

thigh

109

Patellar

anterior surface of knee

110

crural

leg

111

Pedal

foot

112

Tarsal

ankle

113

Hallux

great toe

114

Dorsum

top of foot

115

pubic

pubis

116

Manual

Hand

117

Pollex

thumb

118

Inguinal

Groin

119

Coxal

hip

120

Umbilical

navel

121

Mammary

breast

122

Acromial

Shoulder

123

Scapular

shoulder blade

124

Vertebral

spinal column

125

Olecranal or Cubital

back of elbow

126

Sacral

between hips

127

Coccygeal

tailbone

128

Gluteal

buttock

129

region of anus and external glands

Perineal

130

Popliteal

hollow behind the knee

131

Dorsum

back of hand

132

calf

Crural

133

Plantar

sole

134

heel

Calcaneal