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Flashcards in Ch.12 Deck (43)
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1

What are the 3 sets of customs and procedures every society must develop?

1. Making and enforcing decisions
2. Resolving disputes
3. regulating the behavior of its members
-to maintain social order

2

What is the oldest societal form?

Bands

3

What is the size of a band?

small groups of 30-50 people

4

What is a bands subsistence?

Nomadic food collectors

5

Bands view on property?

little to no individual property ownership
-value in sharing
Egalitarian
Independent unit

6

What is a bands political structure?

decisions are embedded in the wider social structure
informal leaders
-one can persuade or give advise, but has no power

7

What is our cultural example of a band?

Chippewa/Ojibwa

8

What is a Tribes subsistence strategy?

Horticuluralists and Patoralists

9

What is a tribes political organization?

egalitarian
local leaders but no centralized leadership

10

How do Tribes differ from bands?

Tribes have pan-tribal mechanism

11

What is meant by pan-tribal mechanism?

-The ability to integrate local segments into a larger whole
-occurs when there is an external threat
-not permanent

12

What changes about tribes based on there subsistence?

Produce more food
larger more dense populations
more sedentary

13

What is our cultural example of a tribe?

Yanomami

14

What is the population size of Chiefdoms?

large and dense 1,000-2,000 people per village
villages are connected to one another with total populations 10,000-100,000

15

What is a Chiefdoms subsistence strategy?

Intensive horticulture and agriculture
Fisheries
Developed tool technology
Irrigation

16

What changes about a Chiefdom because of subsistence?

Increase food supply with excess
sedentary
Increased job specialization

17

What is a Chiefdoms political organization?

power lies with one individual
-alone or with an advisory council
local communities that are not equal
-based on relatedness to a chief

18

What is a Chiefs power?

power to distribute land
Chan recruit
-military service
-laborers for public work projects
makes sure no one goes without

19

Where does a Chiefs power come from?

power is reinforced by alleged supernatural powers
-commoners can pledge support

20

What is our cultural example of a Chiefdom?

Hawaiian Chiefdoms

21

What are the characteristics of a State level society?

Formal and complex
Governs many communities over a broad geographic area
Large urban centers
high population density:10,000 to millions
monumental architecture
written laws
market economy

22

What is the subsistence strategy of a state level society, and its effect?

intensified agriculture
food surpluses are not distributed equally
-stratified society

23

Why do states need writing, record keeping, and a system of weights and measures?

they have the power to collect taxes which requires these tools.

24

What powers do state level societies have?

Collect taxes
recruit labor for armies and civilian public work projects
have the monopoly to use force
-police and military

25

How does a state maintain authority?

ideology

26

What is membership of a state based on?

residence/citizenship not kinship

27

Benefits that helped initiate the rise of states?

protection from outside forces
effective means of conflict resolution
increased food production

28

What is the agriculture hypothesis?

V. Gordon Childe (1936)
intensified agriculture created food surplus
freed up a segment of the population from the food production
new occupations
creates a need for wider populations

29

What is the Hydraulic/Irrigation hypothesis?

Karl Wittfogel (1957)
Small scale irrigation farmers surrender their autonomy
Merge communities
need for rulers
-labor
-military

30

What is the Warfare hypothesis?

Caneiro (1970)
-state formation is involuntary
-wars occurred in areas with limited agricultural land for expanding populations
-those that lost the war became members of the state