Flashcards in Ch.12 Deck (43)
What are the 3 sets of customs and procedures every society must develop?
1. Making and enforcing decisions
2. Resolving disputes
3. regulating the behavior of its members
-to maintain social order
What is the oldest societal form?
What is the size of a band?
small groups of 30-50 people
What is a bands subsistence?
Nomadic food collectors
Bands view on property?
little to no individual property ownership
-value in sharing
What is a bands political structure?
decisions are embedded in the wider social structure
-one can persuade or give advise, but has no power
What is our cultural example of a band?
What is a Tribes subsistence strategy?
Horticuluralists and Patoralists
What is a tribes political organization?
local leaders but no centralized leadership
How do Tribes differ from bands?
Tribes have pan-tribal mechanism
What is meant by pan-tribal mechanism?
-The ability to integrate local segments into a larger whole
-occurs when there is an external threat
What changes about tribes based on there subsistence?
Produce more food
larger more dense populations
What is our cultural example of a tribe?
What is the population size of Chiefdoms?
large and dense 1,000-2,000 people per village
villages are connected to one another with total populations 10,000-100,000
What is a Chiefdoms subsistence strategy?
Intensive horticulture and agriculture
Developed tool technology
What changes about a Chiefdom because of subsistence?
Increase food supply with excess
Increased job specialization
What is a Chiefdoms political organization?
power lies with one individual
-alone or with an advisory council
local communities that are not equal
-based on relatedness to a chief
What is a Chiefs power?
power to distribute land
-laborers for public work projects
makes sure no one goes without
Where does a Chiefs power come from?
power is reinforced by alleged supernatural powers
-commoners can pledge support
What is our cultural example of a Chiefdom?
What are the characteristics of a State level society?
Formal and complex
Governs many communities over a broad geographic area
Large urban centers
high population density:10,000 to millions
What is the subsistence strategy of a state level society, and its effect?
food surpluses are not distributed equally
Why do states need writing, record keeping, and a system of weights and measures?
they have the power to collect taxes which requires these tools.
What powers do state level societies have?
recruit labor for armies and civilian public work projects
have the monopoly to use force
-police and military
How does a state maintain authority?
What is membership of a state based on?
residence/citizenship not kinship
Benefits that helped initiate the rise of states?
protection from outside forces
effective means of conflict resolution
increased food production
What is the agriculture hypothesis?
V. Gordon Childe (1936)
intensified agriculture created food surplus
freed up a segment of the population from the food production
creates a need for wider populations
What is the Hydraulic/Irrigation hypothesis?
Karl Wittfogel (1957)
Small scale irrigation farmers surrender their autonomy
need for rulers