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Flashcards in Ch13 Deck (17)
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Power and Dependency 

  • Power: The capacity to influence others (Leaders having power over employees)
  • Dependency: Depends on someone because they have something you want


Formal Bases of Power

C. R. L.

  • Coercive Power: Using fear on someone else (Using power that is based on fear and negative results from failing)
    • Leaders can demote /Fire a person assuming they value their job. If they can control over someone activities which make them feel scared of a negative outcome you have coercive power over them
  • Reward Power: Someone who distribute rewards others view as valuable, this person will have power over them
    • Rewards such as: Pay rate increase, promotion, bonus etc
  • Legitimate Power: The power a person receives based off their job position
    • The higher up you are the more power you will have (EX: Principal, President etc)


Personal Bases of Power (MOST EFFECTIVE)

  • Expert Power: Influenced by someone that has the skill set/knowledge
    • EX: Doctors, Specialist etc
  • Referent Power: Influenced based on identification who has a desirable resource or trait. If I like & admire you, you can exercise power over me, because I want to please you.
    • Celebs have a identification to promote a product because they are known and can easily get someone to buy it compared to a regular person promoting it


3 Characteristics That Create Dependency 

S. I. N./S.

  • Importance: If nobody wants what you have then it does not develop a level of importance
  • Scarcity: When supply labor is low and the demand for it is high
  • Non substitutability: Few or None substitute available for that specific resource


Power Tactics: 

Ways an individual uses power for a specific action, action is influenced by supervisors/boss


Describe the Personal Bases of Power

  • Expert Power - influence wielded as a result of expertise, special skill, or knowledge. As jobs become more specialized, we become increasingly dependent on experts to achieve goals.
    • Phisitians, computers specialist, tax accountants etc.
  • Referent Power - is based on identification with a person who has desirable resources or personal traits. If I like, respect, and admire you, you can exercise power over me because I want to please you.
    • People desire to be like the admirable person, that is why famous people paid a lot for advirtisements.


The 9 Power Tactics


L. E. P. P. C     (Леппс)

I. R. I. C.    (Ирис)


  • Legitimacy: Authority position  based off organizational rules
  • Exchange: Rewarding the target with benefits in exchange for a request
  • Personal Appeals: Asking for a compliance based on friendship or loyalty
  • Pressure: Using warnings, repeated demands, and threats
  • Coalition: Engaging the support of others to persuade the target to agree


  • Inspirational Appeals:  appealing to a target
  • Rational Persuasion: Presenting Evidence/facts 
  • Ingratiation: Using flattery, praise, or friendly  behavior to make a request
  • Consultation: Increasing target's support by involving him in decision process of how you will accomplish your plan


Political Skill: 

The ability to influence others in a way as to enhance ones objectives.  More effective tactic when stakes are high


Sexual Harassment 

  • Sexual harassment is more likely to occurs when there are large power differentials. Since supervisors control the resource and employees want those resources.
  • Sometimes sexual harassment will come from the boss, since there might not be any eye-witnesses it will be the bosses word vs your word.
  • Sometimes when women are in charge or have the power, employees would devalue her, and point out the stereotypes that reflects her negatively


Legitimate and Illegitimate Political Behavior 

  • Legitimate: (Mutual agreement that I do this for you and you do this for me) Efforts to influence the goals, criteria, process for decision making.
  • Illegitimate Political Behavior: (Sabotage, blackmailing someone) Withholding key information, joining coalitions, whistleblowers, spreading rumors, and leaking out organizational information


Political Behavior:

Activities that are not required as a part of a person formal role in the organization, but that influences the advantages within the organization 


Political Behavoir - Individual Factors

  • HSM (High School Musical)
  • IFC  (Island For Celebrating)
  • MP (Military Police)
  • OI (Overly Inovative)
  • PJA (Pijama) 
  • EoS (End of Story)

  • High – Self Monitors: more sensitive to social cues, exhibits higher level of social conformity, and is more likely to be skilled in political behavior than the low-self monitor.
  • Internal Focus of Control: are more prone to take proactive stand and attempt to manipulate situations in their favor.
  • Machiavellian Personality: the will to manipulate and the desire for power, comfortable to use politics to further his interest
  • Organizational Investment: the more a person expects increased future benefit from the organization, the more the person has to lose if forced out and the less likely he or she is going to use illegitimate means.
  • Perceived Job Alternatives: due to favorable job market or the possession of scare skill or knowledge, a prominent reputation of influential conducts outside the organization – the more like that individual is to risk illegitimate political action.
  • Expectations of Success
    • Low expectations are unlikely to use illegitimate means
    • High expectations from such measure are most likely to be the province of both experienced and powerful individuals with polished political skill and inexperience naïve employees who misjudge their chances


Political Behavoir - Organizational Factors


  • RR 
  • PO
  • LT
  • RA
  • UPE
  • ZSRP

  • Reallocation of Resource (Any Changes) within the organization, that are likely to stimulate conflict and increase pot licking
  • Promotion Opportunities: encourages competition for a limited resource as people try to influence the decision outcome
  • Low Trust: will result in higher levels of political behavior to be illegitimate
  • Role Ambiguity: employee behavior is unclear, the greater the role ambiguity the more employees can engage in the un-noticed political activity
  • Unclear Performance Evaluation: the more the organization use subjective criteria in the appraisals, emphasized a single outcome measure, or allow significant time to pass the time of an action, the greater the likelihood that an employee can get away with pot licking
  • Zero Sum Reward Practices:
    • Democratic Decision Making
    • High Performance Pressures
    • Self-Serving Senior Managers


How employees respond to organizational politics

Organizational Politics may threaten employees

  • Decreased Job Satisfaction
  • Increase Anxiety and Stress
  • Increased Turnover
  • Reduced Performance


Impression Management (IM)

The process by which individual attempt to control the impression of themselves using these techniques. High self-monitors are good at reading situation and molding their appearances and behavior to fit the situation.


8 IM Techniques

E ​E E  F F


  • Conformity: Agreeing with someone
  • Favors: Doing something nice to someone
  • Excuses: An excuse to minimize the apparent severity 
  • Apologies: admitting for their wrongs then apologizes for them
  • Self-Promotion: highlighting your own qualities, meanwhile pointing out the flaws on someone else.
  • Enhancement: Claiming something they did is more valuable than the other members
  • Flattery: complimenting on someone else’s work 
  • Exemplification: doing more than needed to show their dedication 


Examples of Appropriate Use and Abuse of Power

Need to think about it