Ch.14 Personality Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch.14 Personality Deck (37):
1

Nomothetic approach

Approach to personality that focuses on identifying general laws that govern the behavior of all behaviors

2

Idiographic approach

Approach to personality that focuses on identifying the unique configuration of characteristics and life history experiences within an individual

3

Shared environmental factors

Experiences that make individuals within the same family more alike

4

Nonshared environmental factors

Experiences that make individuals in a family less alike

5

Molecular genetic study

Investigation that allows researchers to pinpoint genes associated with specific characteristics, including personality traits

6

Repression

Motivated forgetting of emotionally threatening memories or impulses

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Denial

Motivated forgetting of distressing experiences

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Regression

Returning psychologically to a younger and safer time

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Reaction formation

Transforming an anxiety producing experience into its opposite

10

Projection

Unconscious attribution of our negative qualities onto others

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Displacement

Directing an impulse from a socially unacceptable target onto a more acceptable one

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Rationalization

Providing reasonable sounding explanations for unreasonable behaviors or failures

13

Intellectualization

Avoiding the emotions associated with anxiety provoking experiences by focusing on abstract and impersonal thoughts

14

Identifying with the aggressor

Adopting the psychological characteristics of people we find threatening

15

Sublimation

Transforming a socially unacceptable impulse into an admired and socially valued goal

16

Neo Freudian theories

Derived from Freud model but with less emphasis on sexuality as a driving force in personality and more optimism regarding the prospects for long term personality growth

17

Style of life

according to Alfred Adler each person’s distinctive way of achieving superiority

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Inferiority complex

Feelings of low self esteem that can lead to overcompensation for such feelings

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Alfred Adler the striving for superiority

The principle motive in human personality is striving for superiority. Our overall goal in life is to be better than others.

20

Carl Jung collective unconscious

Our shared storehouse of memories that ancestors have passed down to us across generations. It’s our shared storehouse ancestral memories that accounts for cultural similarities in myths and legends.

21

Archetypes

Cross culturally universal symbol

22

Karen horney: feminist psychology

Women’s sense of inferiority stems not from anatomy but from their excessive dependency on men, which can society has ingrained in them from an early age.

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Behavioral theories of personality

Reject notion that the first few years of life are not especially critical in personality development. Personality consists of behaviors doesn’t cause them. Personality under control of genetic factors and contingencies in the environment that is reinforcers and punishers

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Behavioral views of determinism

All our actions are products of preexisting causal influences. Free will is an illusion.

25

Behavioral views of unconscious processing

Don’t understand the reasons of our behavior often. We are unconscious or many things because we are often unaware of immediate situational influences on our behaviors.

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Locus of control

Extent to which people believe that reinforcers and punishers lie inside or outside their control

27

Trait model: the big five

1. Extroversion- tend to be social and lively
2. Neuroticism- neurotic people tend to be tense and moody
3. Agreeableness- sociable and easy to get along with
4. Conscientiousness- people tend to be careful and responsible
5. Openness to experience- intellectually curious and unconventional in their interests and outlook on the world.

28

Structured personality test

Paper and pencil measure consisting of questions that respondents answer in on of a few fixed ways.

29

Minnesota Multiphasic personality inventory (MMPI)

Widely used structured personality test designed to assess symptoms of mental disorders

30

Empirical method of test construction

Approach to building tests in which researches begin with two or more criterion groups and examine which items best differentiate them.

31

Face validity

Extent to which respondents can tell what the items are measuring

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Rational/ theoretical method of test construction

Approach to building tests that requires test developers to begin with a clear cut conceptualization of a trait and then write items to assess that conceptualization.

33

Projective hypothesis

Hypothesis that in the process of interpreting ambiguous stimuli, examinees project aspects of their personality onto the stimulus.

34

Rorschach Inkblot Test

Projective test consisting of 10 symmetrical ink blots

35

Incremental validity

Extent to which a test contributes information beyond other more easily collected measures

36

Thematic Appreciation Test TAT

Projective Test requiring examinees to tell a story in response to ambiguous pictures

37

Graphology

Psychological interpretations of handwriting