Ch.2 Stress Flashcards Preview

Psychology year 12 > Ch.2 Stress > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch.2 Stress Deck (39):
1

What is stress?

Is a state of mental or physical tension that occurs when an individual must adapt to their environment but they do not feel they have the capacity to do so

2

What is a stressor?

Is any person, object or event that challenges or threatens someone

3

Eustress

Is a positive psychological response to a stressor

4

Distress

Is a negative psychological response to a stressor

5

Acute stress

Is the most common form of stress and is the body's immediate response to a perceived stressor

6

Chronic stress

Is the body's response to a persistent or long-term stressor

7

Daily pressures

Are everyday occurrences that consist of the little annoyances. This can be missing the bus, arguing with friends, trying to meet deadlines or losing your keys

8

Life events

Refer to significant events that don't occur as often in an individual's life. This can be getting married, starting a new job, death of a loved or a break up with partner.

9

Acculturation

Involves a person changing their behaviour to adopt the new traits or social patterns of the culture they have moved to

10

What is a catastrophe?

It is a sudden, unpredictable, uncontrollable event that causes large-scale damage and suffering for a group

11

Examples of life events

Marriage
Divorce
Death of loved one
Job loss

12

Examples of daily pressures

Travel
Traffic jam
Losing an item

13

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

Is a pattern of symptoms following exposure to a stressful life event that sets off significant distress or impairment of human functioning

14

Symptoms of PTSD

Flashbacks of the event
Avoiding reminders of the event
Feeling detached from others
Negative thought pattern
Disruption to sleep
Prolonged arousal

15

What is a stress response

It is a set of physical and psychological responses that are automatically triggered as a result of the sympathetic nervous system activation following the perception of a threat

16

Fight-flight-freeze response

Is the body's response to a threat in its presence.

17

Cortisol

Is an important steroid hormone produced by the adrenal glands. It is essential to the maintenance of homeostasis

18

Physiological stress reactions

Skin rashes
Headaches
Colds/flu
Heart palpitations
Heart attack
Stomach ulcer

19

Psychological stress reactions

Behaviour
-changes to eating habits
-changes to sleep

Emotional
-irritability
-aggression

Cognitive
-decreased concentration
-memory impairment

20

What is General Adaption Syndrome?

Selye proposed that most people experience stress in a similar way.

21

What are the 3 stages of GAS?

Alarm reaction
-shock
-counter shock

Resistance

Exhaustion

22

Alarm reaction

Shock - when initially exposed to a stressor

Counter Shock - body's resistance to the stressor creates high arousal levels

23

Resistance

Body attempts to cope with the stressor; body may adapt to high levels of cortisol

24

Exhaustion

Body's resistance is further weakened and is more vulnerable to illness.

25

What are the functions of cortisol?

Regulation of blood pressure
Proper glucose metabolism
Maintains blood glucose
Burst of energy

26

What happens when we have too much cortisol?

If stress becomes prolonged, it supresses our immune system which causes illness.

27

Primary appraisal

Is when we decide if a situation is threatening or positive, relevant or irrelevant to our situation.

28

Secondary appraisal

Is when we assess what resources are available to us to help cope with the stressor.

29

Coping

Is a process that involves constant changes in thoughts and behaviour so we can manage the demands of the stressor.

30

Coping strategies

Consist of the behavioural and psychological responses a person makes to a stressor. This helps people function effectively even though the stressor remains.

31

What is the Lazarus and Folkman`s transactional model of stress and coping?

It is a model that proposes that stressful experiences are a transaction between a person and their environment.

32

Approach strategies

Consist of behavioural or psychological responses designed to change the nature of the stressor or how one thinks about it.

33

Avoidance strategies

Involve choosing your response to a stressor based on trying to either avoid a painful or threatening thoughts.

34

Coping flexibility

Is the ability to stop an ineffective coping strategy and implement an alternate strategy.

35

Emotion focused strategies

Approach strategies aimed at managing the emotional distress caused by a stressor by changing the unpleasant emotions associated with it.

36

Problem focused strategies

Approach strategies that directly target the stressor and aim to reduce it.

37

Benefits of exercise

Physical benefits - improves physical condition and increases energy levels.

Psychological benefits - It promotes positive mood and alleviates pressure for a short time.

38

FFF response

Releases two substances noradrenaline and adrenaline when the organism senses a threat. These substances prime the body for a brief burst of physical activity by directing blood and energy from the tissues to the heart, lungs, muscles and brain.

39

Benefits of meditation

Gaining a new perspective on stressful situations
Building skills to manage your stress
Reducing negative emotions
Increasing patience and tolerance