Flashcards in Ch.2 Stress Deck (39):
What is stress?
Is a state of mental or physical tension that occurs when an individual must adapt to their environment but they do not feel they have the capacity to do so
What is a stressor?
Is any person, object or event that challenges or threatens someone
Is a positive psychological response to a stressor
Is a negative psychological response to a stressor
Is the most common form of stress and is the body's immediate response to a perceived stressor
Is the body's response to a persistent or long-term stressor
Are everyday occurrences that consist of the little annoyances. This can be missing the bus, arguing with friends, trying to meet deadlines or losing your keys
Refer to significant events that don't occur as often in an individual's life. This can be getting married, starting a new job, death of a loved or a break up with partner.
Involves a person changing their behaviour to adopt the new traits or social patterns of the culture they have moved to
What is a catastrophe?
It is a sudden, unpredictable, uncontrollable event that causes large-scale damage and suffering for a group
Examples of life events
Death of loved one
Examples of daily pressures
Losing an item
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
Is a pattern of symptoms following exposure to a stressful life event that sets off significant distress or impairment of human functioning
Symptoms of PTSD
Flashbacks of the event
Avoiding reminders of the event
Feeling detached from others
Negative thought pattern
Disruption to sleep
What is a stress response
It is a set of physical and psychological responses that are automatically triggered as a result of the sympathetic nervous system activation following the perception of a threat
Is the body's response to a threat in its presence.
Is an important steroid hormone produced by the adrenal glands. It is essential to the maintenance of homeostasis
Physiological stress reactions
Psychological stress reactions
-changes to eating habits
-changes to sleep
What is General Adaption Syndrome?
Selye proposed that most people experience stress in a similar way.
What are the 3 stages of GAS?
Shock - when initially exposed to a stressor
Counter Shock - body's resistance to the stressor creates high arousal levels
Body attempts to cope with the stressor; body may adapt to high levels of cortisol
Body's resistance is further weakened and is more vulnerable to illness.
What are the functions of cortisol?
Regulation of blood pressure
Proper glucose metabolism
Maintains blood glucose
Burst of energy
What happens when we have too much cortisol?
If stress becomes prolonged, it supresses our immune system which causes illness.
Is when we decide if a situation is threatening or positive, relevant or irrelevant to our situation.
Is when we assess what resources are available to us to help cope with the stressor.
Is a process that involves constant changes in thoughts and behaviour so we can manage the demands of the stressor.
Consist of the behavioural and psychological responses a person makes to a stressor. This helps people function effectively even though the stressor remains.
What is the Lazarus and Folkman`s transactional model of stress and coping?
It is a model that proposes that stressful experiences are a transaction between a person and their environment.
Consist of behavioural or psychological responses designed to change the nature of the stressor or how one thinks about it.
Involve choosing your response to a stressor based on trying to either avoid a painful or threatening thoughts.
Is the ability to stop an ineffective coping strategy and implement an alternate strategy.
Emotion focused strategies
Approach strategies aimed at managing the emotional distress caused by a stressor by changing the unpleasant emotions associated with it.
Problem focused strategies
Approach strategies that directly target the stressor and aim to reduce it.
Benefits of exercise
Physical benefits - improves physical condition and increases energy levels.
Psychological benefits - It promotes positive mood and alleviates pressure for a short time.
Releases two substances noradrenaline and adrenaline when the organism senses a threat. These substances prime the body for a brief burst of physical activity by directing blood and energy from the tissues to the heart, lungs, muscles and brain.