Ch.1 Nervous system functioning Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch.1 Nervous system functioning Deck (24):

What is the structure and function of the CNS?

Contains the brain and spinal cord, the CNS controls the body by processing and responding to sensory input from the PNS.


What is the structure and function of the PNS?

Contains the Somatic and Autonomic nervous systems. Communicates information from the body to the CNS and to the body's organs, glands and muscles.


What are motor neurons?

Neurons that communicate messages from the CNS to the muscles for movement.


What are sensory neurons?

Neurons that carries information from the body and from the outside world into the CNS.


What is the sympathetic nervous system?

Is a branch of the autonomic nervous system that activates the flight, fight and freeze response.


What is the parasympathetic nervous system?

Is a branch of the ANS, responsible for maintaining our day-to-day functioning of the body such as digestion, heart rate and breathing.


What are dendrites?

Branch-like segments of a neuron which receive signals from other neurons or sensory receptors.


What is the soma?

Is the cell body and the largest part of the neuron, that controls the metabolism and maintenance of the cell.


What is an axon?

Is the part of the neuron where messages are sent.


What is the myelin?

A white, fatty, waxy substance that coats some axons, protecting them from electrical interference from other neurons. It also speeds up the messages sent along the axons.


What are axon terminals?

Are bulb-like structures at the end of an axon which release neurotransmitters.


What is a spinal reflex?

Is an unconscious, involuntary and automatically occurring response without any involvement of the brain.


What are excitatory messages?

Messages transmitted by neurotransmitters that stimulate the next neuron to fire.


What are inhibitory messages?

Messages transmitted by neurotransmitters that make the next neuron less likely to fire.



The primary excitatory neurotransmitter that is responsible for the fast transmission of neural messages.



The primary inhibitory neurotransmitter. Its overall effects are to calm or slow neural transmission.


Lock and key like process of neurotransmitters

Just as a key has its own pattern and shape that fit into a specific hole in a lock. Each neurotransmitter has a distinct shape that fits into a specific receptor site.


What is Parkinson's disease?

It is a neurodegenerative disorder characterised by chronic and progressive changes in the brain due to the malfunction and deterioration to neurons.


Action potential

Refers to the build up of electrical energy so that enough is available for the neuron to fire.


Resting potential

Refers to when a neuron is not stimulated or involved in passage of an impulse.


Symptoms of PD

. Unpredictable tremors and shaking
. Pain and discomfort in limbs
. Speech and swallowing problems
. Reduced control over facial muscles
. Anxiety
. Depression
. Slowness in thinking and memory problems


What are some neurological diseases caused by neurotransmitter dysfunction?

Alzheimer's disease
Huntington's disease
Motor neuron disease



There is an increase of neurotransmitters, which increases the effect of neurotransmitters. More likely to fire an action potential.



Inhibit the release of neurotransmitters or block the receptor sites. Less likely to fire an action potential.