Flashcards in CH6 - White Blood Cell Disorders Deck (283)
What does hematopoetic CD34+ stem cells produce?
Myeloid stem cells and lymphoid stem cells
What does myeloid stem cells produce?
Erythroblast, Myeloblast, Monoblast, Megakaryoblast
What does erythroblast produce?
What does myeloblast produce?
Neutrophils, basophils, Eosinophils
What does monoblast produce?
What does megakaryoblast produce?
What does lymphoid stem cells produce?
B lymphoblast and T Lymphoblast
What does B lymphoblast produce?
What does Naïve B cells produce?
What does T lymphoblast produce?
What does Naïve T cells produce?
CD8+ and CD4+ T cells
How does hematopoiesis occur?
via a stepwise maturation of CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells
What happens to hematopoetic stem cells?
Cells mature and are released from the bone marrow into the blood.
What is the normal white blood cell (WBC) count?
it is approximately 5-10 K/pL
What is a low WBC count? What is it called?
(< 5 K) is called leukopenia.
What is a high WBC count? What is it called?
(> 10 K) is called leukocytosis.
What is a low or high WBC count usually due to?
a decrease or increase in one particular cell lineage.
What is neutropenia?
refers to a decreased number of circulating neutrophils
What are some of the causes of neutropenia?
1) Drug toxicity 2) severe infection
How can drug toxicity lead to neutropenia?
e.g., chemotherapy with alkylating agents, cause damage to stem cells resulting in decreased production of WBCs, especially neutrophils.
How does severe infection lead to neutropenia?
e.g., gram-negative sepsis leads to increased movement of neutrophils into tissues resulting in decreased circulating neutrophils.
What is GM-CSF or G-CSF?
granulocyte monocyte stimulating factor or granulocyte stimulating factor, it can be used to boost the neutrophil count decreasing the risk of infection
What is lymphopenia?
it refers to a decreased number of circulating lymphocytes
What are the some of the causes of lymphopenia?
1) immunodeficiency 2) high cortisol state 3) autoimmune destruction 4) whole body radiation
What are some examples of immunodeficiency that lead to lymphopenia?
e.g., DiGeorge syndrome or HIV
How does a High Cortisol state lead to lymphopenia?
exogenous corticosteroids or Cushing syndrome, induces apoptosis of lymphocytes
What is an example of autoimmune destruction leading to lymphopenia?
e.g., systemic lupus erythematosus
How can whole body radiation lead to lymphopenia?
Lymphocytes are highly sensitive to radiation; lymphopenia is the earliest change to emerge after whole body radiation
What are the different types of leukocytosis?
1) neutrophilic leukocytosis 2) monocytosis 3) Eosinophilia 4) Basophilia 5) Lymphocytic leukocytosis