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Flashcards in CH16 - Breast Pathology Deck (118)
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1

What is the breast?

modified sweat gland; embryologically derived from the skin

2

From where can breast tissue develop?

anywhere along the milk line, which runs from the axilla to the vulva (e.g., supernumerary nipples).

3

What is the functional unit of the breast?

the terminal duct lobular unit

4

What do the lobules make?

milk that drains via ducts to the nipple

5

What are the lobules and ducts lined by?

two layers of epithelium, luminal cell layer and myoepithelial layer

6

What is the luminal cell layer? Its function?

inner cell layer lining the ducts and lobules; responsible for milk production in the lobules

7

What is the myoepithelial cell layer? Its function?

outer cell layer lining ducts and lobules; contractile function propels milk towards the nipple.

8

What is the breast tissue sensitive to?

hormone

9

What does the male and female breast tissue primarily consist of before puberty?

large ducts under the nipple

10

What is the development after menarche primarily driven by?

estrogen and progesterone; lobules and small ducts form and are present in highest density in the upper outer quadrant.

11

What happens to the breast during the menstrual cycle?

Breast tenderness during the menstrual cycle is a common complaint, especially prior to menstruation.

12

What happens to the breast during pregnancy?

breast lobules undergo hyperplasia.

13

What is hyperplasia driven by?

estrogen and progesterone produced by the corpus luteum (early first trimester), fetus, and placenta (later in pregnancy)

14

What happens to breast tissue after menopause?

breast tissue undergoes atrophy.

15

What does galactorrhea refer to?

milk production outside of lactation.

16

Is galactorrhea related to breast cancer?

It is not a symptom of breast cancer.

17

What causes galactorrhea?

include nipple stimulation (common physiologic cause), prolactinoma of the anterior pituitary (common pathologic cause), and drugs.

18

What are the inflammatory conditions of the breast?

Acute mastitis, periductal mastitis, mammary duct ectasia, fat necrosis,

19

What is acute mastitis?

Bacterial infection of the breast, usually due to Staphylococcus aureus

20

What is acute mastitis associated with?

breast-feeding; fissures develop in the nipple providing a route of entry for microbes.

21

What does acute mastitis present as?

an erythematous breast with purulent nipple discharge; may progress to abscess formation

22

What does the treatment of acute mastitis involve?

continued drainage (e.g., feeding) and antibiotics (e.g., dicloxacillin).

23

What is periductal mastitis?

Inflammation of the subareolar ducts

24

What is periductal mastitis usually seen in?

smokers

25

In periductal mastitis, relative vitamin A deficiency results in what?

squamous metaplasia of lactiferous ducts, producing duct blockage and inflammation

26

How does periductal mastitis clinically present?

as a subareolar mass with nipple retraction

27

What is mammary duct ectasia?

Inflammation with dilation (ectasia) of the subareolar ducts

28

What is the frequency of mammary duct ectasia?

Rare

29

In whom does mammary duct ectasia classically arise?

in muciparous postmenopausal women

30

What does mammary duct ectasia present as?

a periareolar mass with green-brown nipple discharge (inflammatory debris)

31

What is seen on biopsy of mammary duct ectasia?

Chronic inflammation with plasma cells

32

What is fat necrosis for the breast?

It is necrosis of breast fat

33

What is fat necrosis usually related to?

trauma; however, a history of trauma may not always be evident

34

What does fat necrosis present as?

a mass on physical exam or abnormal calcification on mammography (due to saponification)

35

What does biopsy of fat necrosis of the breast show?

shows necrotic fat with associated calcifications and giant cells.

36

What is fibrocystic change?

Development of fibrosis and cysts in the breast

37

What is the most common change in the premenopausal breast?

Fibrocystic change; thought to be hormone mediated

38

What does fibrocystic change present as?

vague irregularity of the breast tissue (lumpy breast), usually in the upper outer quadrant

39

In fibrocystic change what is seen on gross exam?

Cysts have a blue-dome appearance on gross exam.

40

Is fibrocystic change malignant or benign?

benign, but some fibrocystic-related changes are associated with an increased risk for invasive carcinoma (increased risk applies to both breasts)

41

For what type of fibrocystic change is there no increased risk for carcinoma?

Fibrosis, cysts, and apocrine metaplasia

42

For what type of fibrocystic change is there 2x increased risk for carcinoma?

Ductal hyperplasia and sclerosing adenosis

43

For what type of fibrocystic change is there 5x increased risk for carcinoma?

Atypical hyperplasia

44

What is intraductal papilloma?

Papillary growth, usually into a large duct

45

What is intraductal papilloma characterized by?

fibrovascular protections lined by epithelial (luminal) and myoepithelial cells

46

What does intraductal papilloma classically present as?

bloody nipple discharge in a premenopausal woman

47

What must intraductal papilloma be distinguished from?

papillary carcinoma, which also presents as bloody nipple discharge

48

What is papillary carcinoma characterized by?

fibrovascular projections lined by epithelial cells without underlying myoepithelial cells

49

When does the risk of papillary carcinoma increase?

with age; thus, it is more commonly seen in postmenopausal women.

50

What is fibroadenoma?

Tumor of fibrous tissue and glands

51

What is the most common benign neoplasm of the breast?

fibroadenoma; usually seen in premenopausal women

52

What does fibroadenoma present as?

a well-circumscribed, mobile marble-like mass

53

Does the fibroadenoma respond to estrogen?

Yes it is estrogen sensitive and grows during pregnancy and may be painful during the menstrual cycle

54

Is fibroadenoma malignant or benign?

it is benign with no increased risk of carcinoma

55

What is phyllodes tumor?

Fibroadenoma-like tumor with overgrowth of the fibrous component;

56

What is characteristically seen on biopsy of phyllodes tumor?

leaf-like projections are seen on biopsy

57

In whom is phyllodes tumor most commonly seen?

in postmenopausal women

58

Is phyllodes tumor benign or malignant?

It can be malignant in some cases

59

What is the frequency of breast cancer?

It is the most common carcinoma in women by incidence (excluding skin cancer)

60

What is the 2nd most common cause of cancer mortality in women?

Breast cancer

61

What are the risk factors for breast cancer?

they are mostly related to estrogen exposure; 1. Female gender 2. Age?Cancer usually arises in postmenopausal women, with the notable exception of hereditary breast cancer. 3. Early menarche/late menopause 4. Obesity 5. Atypical hyperplasia 6. First-degree relative (mother, sister, or daughter) with breast cancer

62

What is ductal carcinoma in situ?

Malignant proliferation of cells in ducts with no invasion of the basement membrane

63

What is ductal carcinoma often detected as on mammography?

Often detected as calcification on mammography; DCIS does not usually produce a mass.

64

Mammographic calcifications can also be associated with what?

benign conditions such as fibrocystic changes (especially sclerosing adenosis) and fat necrosis.

65

For calcification of breast tissue what is necessary to distinguish between benign and malignant conditions?

biopsy of breast calcifications

66

What are the histologic subtypes of DCIS based on?

architecture; comedo type is characterized by high-grade cells with necrosis and dystrophic calcification in the center of ducts

67

What is Paget disease of the breast?

is DCIS that extends up the ducts to involve the skin of the nipple

68

What does Paget disease presents as?

nipple ulceration and erythema

69

What is Paget disease of the breast almost always associated with?

an underlying carcinoma.

70

What is invasive ductal carcinoma?

Invasive carcinoma that classically forms duct-like structures

71

What is the most common type of invasive carcinoma in the breast?

Invasive ductal carcinoma, accounting tor > 80% of cases

72

What does invasive ductal carcinoma present as?

a mass detected by physical exam or by mammography

73

For invasive ductal carcinoma, what is the size of clinically detected masses?

they are usually 2 cm or greater

74

For invasive ductal carcinoma what is the size of mammographically detected masses?

They are usually 1 cm or greater

75

For invasive ductal carcinoma what is the size of advanced tumors?

they may result in dimpling of the skin or retraction of the nipple.

76

For invasive ductal carcinoma, what deos biopsy usually show?

duct-like structures in adesmoplastic stroma; special subtypes of invasive ductal carcinoma include

77

What is tubular carcinoma characterized by?

well-differentiated tubules that lack myoepithelial cells;

78

What is the prognosis for tubular carcinoma?

relatively good prognosis

79

What is mucinous carcinoma characterized by?

carcinoma with abundant extracellular mucin (tumor cells floating in a mucus pool)

80

In whom does mucinous carcinoma tend to occur?

in older women (average age is 70 years)

81

What is the prognosis for mucinous carcionoma?

Relatively good prognosis

82

What is medullary carcinoma characterized by?

large, high-grade cells growing in sheets with associated lymphocytes and plasma cells

83

How does medullary carcinoma grow?

as a well-circumscribed mass that can mimic fibroadenoma on mammography

84

What is the prognosis for medullary carcinoma?

Relatively good prognosis

85

In whom is there an increased incidence of medullary carcinoma?

in BRCA1 carriers

86

What is inflammatory carcinoma characterized by?

carcinoma in dermal lymphatics

87

What does inflammatory carcinoma present as classically?

as an inflamed, swollen breast (tumor cells block drainage of lymphatics) with no discrete mass; can be mistaken for acute mastitis

88

What is the prognosis for inflammatory carcinoma?

Poor prognosis

89

What is lobular carcinoma in situ?

(LCIS) Malignant proliferation of cells in lobules with no invasion of the basement membrane

90

How is LCIS usually discovered?

Its usually discovered incidentally since it does not produce a mass or calcifications

91

What is LCIS characterized by?

dyscohesive cells lacking E-cadherin adhesion protein

92

Describe LCIS.

It is often multifocal and bilateral

93

What is the treatment for LCIS?

Treatment is tamoxifen (to reduce the risk of subsequent carcinoma) and close follow-up; low risk of progression to invasive carcinoma

94

Can LCIS become invasive?

low risk of progression to invasive carcinoma

95

What is invasive lobular carcinoma?

Invasive carcinoma that characteristically grows in a single-file pattern, cells may exhibit signet-ring morphology

96

In invasive lobular carcinoma, what happens to the duct?

No duct formation due to lack of E-cadherin

97

What is the prognosis in breast cancer based on?

TNM staging.

98

What is the most important factor in breast cancer?

Metastasis is the most important factor, but most patients present before metastasis occurs,

99

What is the most useful prognostic factor (given that metastasis is not common at presentation)? How is this performed?

Spread to axillary lymph nodes; sentinel lymph node biopsy is used to assess axillary lymph nodes.

100

In breast cancer, what are predictive factors used for?

predict response to treatment.

101

What is the most important predictive factor for breast cancer?

estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and HER2/neu gene amplification (overexpression) status.

102

In breast cancer what is the presence of ER and PR associated with?

a response to antiestrogenic agents (eg tamoxifen); both receptors are located in the nucleus

103

What is the HER2/neu amplification associated with?

response to trastuzumab (Herceptin), a designer antibody directed against the HER2 receptor

104

What is HER2/neu?

it is a growth factor receptor present on the cell surface

105

In breast cancer, what are triple-negative tumors?

they are negative for ER, PR, and HER2/neu

106

What is the prognosis for triple negative tumors?

They have a poor prognosis; African American women have an increased propensity to develop triple-negative carcinoma,

107

What percentage of breast cancer cases does hereditary breast cancer represent?

10% of breast cancer cases

108

What are the clinical features that suggest hereditary breast cancer?

includes multiple first-degree relatives with breast cancer, tumor at an early age (premenopausal), and multiple tumors in a single patient

109

What are the most important single gene mutations associated with hereditary breast cancer?

BRCA I and BRCA2 mutations

110

What is the BRCA1 mutation associated with?

breast and ovarian carcinoma.

111

What is the BRCA2 mutation associated with?

breast carcinoma in males.

112

What might women with a genetic propensity to develop breast cancer choose to do?

undergo removal of both breasts (bilateral mastectomy) to decrease the risk of developing carcinoma.

113

What is the risk associated with bilateral mastectomy?

a small risk for cancer remains because breast tissue sometimes extends into the axilla or subcutaneous tissue of the chest wall.

114

What is male breast cancer?

Breast cancer is rare in males (represents 1% of all breast cancers).

115

How does breast cancer usually present?

as a subareolar mass in older males; 1. Highest density of breast tissue in males is underneath the nipple. 2. May produce nipple discharge

116

What is the most common histological subtype for breast cancer in males?

invasive ductal carcinoma.

117

What is the frequency of lobular carcinoma in males?

it is rare (the male breast develops very few lobules),

118

What is breast cancer in males associated with?

Associated with BRCA2 mutations and Klinefelter syndrome