Flashcards in Change Management (4, 1) Deck (11)
What did Laurie Mullins suggest were the drivers for change?
Environmental - knowledge explosion, innovation, legislation, globalisation, technology, economic conditions
Internal - new ownership or leadership, demanding stokeholders, internal conflicts, demographics
What 4 different types of strategic change did Julia Balogun and Veronica Hope Hailey develop?
Big bang, realignment - Reconstruction (rapid but doesn’t change the current paradigm, could be structural changes or cost cutting measures)
Incremental, realignment - Adaptation (Incremental and adopted within the organisations current operating model)
Big bang, transformation - Revolution (Change of paradigm at a rapid speed, could be response to take over threats)
Incremental, transformation - Evolution (Change of paradigm but over time, the operating environment and strategic direction are changed)
Psychologist Kurt Lewin said all social systems are in a temporary state of equilibrium. What did he mean by this?
The driving forces and pushing against the Restraining forces. To achieve change either additional driving forces must be added or restraining forces taken away.
Give examples of driving forces and restraining forces.
R - Bureaucracy
D/R - Resources
D/R - Politics
D/R - Insecurity (About future or current situation)
D/R - Risk
R - Blame Culture
D/R - Deference
What might individuals base they resistance to change on?
Objectives - Lack of understanding or disagreement
Technology - When poorly designed or hard to use
Business Processes - When they make unwelcome changes
Financial Processes - If there is scepticism about the financial improvements
Structure - If new structure disrupts relationships
Culture - If it challenges core beliefs or values
Power - If it affects powerful people
What subtle ways can people use to block change without displaying overt opposition?
-Exploiting inertia (advising them to wait until something else…)
-Keeping goals vague and complex
-Exploiting lack of organisational awareness
-Reducing the champions for influence
-Keeping a low profile (avoid decision)
What is Lewins unfreeze-change-refreeze model for achieving change?
Step 1 - Unfreeze the state of play by introducing an imbalance of forces e.g. addressing confrontational issues and encouraging new behaviours so people unlearn their old behaviours
Step 2 - Movement is required when the imbalance has been achieved e.g. communicating new behaviours and facilitating their adoption
Step 3 - Refreezing through rebalancing e.g. reinforcement of new behaviour via training or coaching.
What is theorist Wendell French, Fremont Kast and James Rosenzweigs eight steps for planned change?
1. Initial problem identification
2. Obtaining data
3. Problem Diagnosis
4. Action planning
6. Follow up and stabilisation
7. Assessment of consequences
8. Learning from processes
What is the organisational development approach to manage change?
This involves OD practitioners making interventions of:
Sensitivity training (small groups discussing)
Changing structure (de-centralisation etc)
Process consultation (get consultant support)
What is the “Action Research” approach to manage change?
Observe (capture data) >
Reflect (understand data) >
Plan (identify change) >
Act (deliver change) >