changes in medicine c1848 - c1948 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in changes in medicine c1848 - c1948 Deck (308)
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1

what were the four humours

yellow bile, black bile, phlegm and blood

2

what was the theory of opposites

the idea that illness was caused by too much of one humour, and eating or drinking something with the opposite of those qualities would restore balance

3

what was spontaneous generation

rotting material created maggots, fleas and disease

4

why wasn't there a lot of research to do with microorganisms

people didn't know the link between microorganisms and disease, and microscopes were rare and expensive.
government didn't feel responsible for issues like public health.
doctors didn't want to learn new methods of doing things

5

why were Nightingale's parents surprised when she wanted to be a nurse

it was a low status job

6

how many patients were there at Scutari

10,000

7

where did the patients at Scutari sleep

on the floor or sharing beds

8

what common diseases were at Scutari

typhoid fever, cholera and diarrhoea

9

what were supplies like at Scutari

limited medical supplies
poor quality and limited food supplies

10

were the patients at Scutari clean and hygenic

they were infested with lice and fleas

11

what was the quality of the hospital at Scutari

infested with rats and mice
built on an underground cesspool

12

what did Nightingale do at Scutari to improve conditions

scrubbed everything clean
washed everything
opened windows
new supplies
improved quality of food and cleaned kitchen

13

when did the death rate at Scutari start decreasing

only after a government commission repaired drains and improved water quality

14

what are microorganisms

single celled living organisms which are too small to be seen without a microscope

15

what types of surgery were available c.1840

basic (cutting open a boil) or life threatening (cutting off a tumour or performing an amputation).

16

what did being the best surgeon mean

you were the quickest at your job

17

pain relief available c.1840

opium
alcohol
being knocked unconscious

18

tourniquet

something wrapped tightly around a limb to reduce blood loss

19

why was infection common in surgery patients

unhygenic conditions
surgeons wore dirty clothes
reused bandages and dressings
surgeons didn't wash their hands
many people watched the surgery

20

advantages of using ether

it was a pain relief

21

disadvantages of using ether

side effects like vomiting
irritated lungs
patients could be unconscious for days

22

what was new and good about chloroform

it had no side effects

23

who and what popularised using chloroform

Queen Victoria used it in childbirth

24

who was James Simpson

Professor of Medicine and Midwifery at Edinburgh University

25

give reservations some people had about chloroform

"the bible said childbirth was meant to be painful"
how would chloroform affect the unborn baby?
what dose of chloroform is right?
"one unconscious might be more likely to die than one kept conscious from the pain."

26

how did chloroform alter how surgeons worked

they felt more ambitious and did longer, deeper more complicated operations.

27

what was the black period in surgery

partly as a result of new pain relief, death rates rose, blood loss and infection remained a huge problem.

28

what types of infection were common in surgery patients

gangrene and sepsis

29

what was the living conditions like in london c.1840

families living in a single room
90 people in a single house
houses were usually damp with little light or ventilation
in bad weather there was flooding
a privy might be used by 100 people

30

how did families collect water

from a pump shared by 20-30 families often from polluted rivers, available for a few hours 3-5 times a week.