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Flashcards in Changes In Rural Settlements Deck (82):

What is the rural environment

Population fewer than 10,000
Non built up areas eg. Village, hamlet


What is the urban environment

Built up area, population of 10,000 or more, three subgroups: major conurbation, minor conurbation and city and towns


What are the characteristics of urban areas

Leisure facilities
Banks etc


What are the characteristics of a rural area

Lower housing density
Minor transport routes


What are the socio economic problems of rural areas in LICS and MICS?

Unemployment and underemployment
Population growth
Rural urban migration
Low capital investment
Human diseases


What are the service and infrastructure problems in the rural areas of LICS and HICS

Clean piped water
Tarred Roads
Clinics and schools


What are the agricultural problems in rural areas of LICS and MICs?

Soil exhaustion
Tropical cyclones
Increased use of biofuels (decrease in food supply and rise in food prices)
Social change


What are the factors which influence the development of rural settlements in LICS, MICS and HICS?

Agriculture-dispersed, nucleared
Mining- nucleated
Tourism-costal areas or areas of beauty
Fishing- nucleated around coastal areas
Defence- nucleated
Altitude- sparse population in highlands
Gradient-specific types of agriculture eg steep slopes-pastoral
Aspect-north facing slopes are colder in northern hemisphere
soils- alluvial soils are fertile
Water supply
Drainage and flooding


What are the factors which influenced growth in rural areas

Site: the land the settlement in built on eg. Altitude, gradient, aspect and location of natural resources
Situation: position in relation to the surroundings area such as transport routes


What are the factors which influenced decline in rural areas

Industrial revolution: took place much earlier that LICS
Decline of primary sector employment: more people are moving to the urban area for work


What are the problems caused by the decline of rural settlements

-Services close because of fewer people which means even more people leave the area
-Ageing population
-disrepair of dwellings
-villages become dominant


What is the clokes model of urban rural continuum structure

-Shows how the land use might change with distance from the city
- declining villages in countryside and overspill towns in the urban fringe


What is the rural urban fringe?

-Land use is influenced by easy access for urban residents to the countryside
-farm land may be used for market gardening, ‘pick your own’ farms.
-golf course and country parks are found here


What is the aim of redevelopment of the rural area?

It is trying to pull people back to the rural areas which are within commuting range- places with the best transport links will grow more quickly


What are effects of counter urbanisation

More people commuting
More elderly in rural areas
Second home owners (means that village services close down, bus and train services close, no village community, house prices rise so young people have to move out
Skilled people able to work from home


What is urbanisation?

The increasing proportion of people that live in towns and cities


What is suburbanisation?

The outward growth of urban development which may engulf surrounding villages and towns into a larger urban agglomeration


What is urban sprawl?

The spread of the city buildings and houses into a area that used to be countryside


What is counter-urbanisation?

When people move out of the urban area into the rural areas


What is urban renewal?

The redevelopment of rundown urban areas


What is reurbanisation?

The movement of people and economic activities back into the central areas of a city


What are millionaire cites?

Cities with a population over 1 million


What are mega cities

Cities with a population over 10 million


What are conurbations?

Conurbations are multiple settlements that have expanded to become one big settlement


When did urbanisation take place in the uk?

Over 200 years ago because of the industrial revolution needed a labour force in the city


When and why did urbanisation take place in LICs?

1950s because of better job opportunity’s in the urban areas(because of TNCs), better services


What are the problems with urbanisation



What is being done in LICS to combat the impacts of urbanisation

Site and service schemes: land is provided with water and electricity and people built there own homes
Self help schemes: given ownership of the land and make improvements on there property


What is suburbanisation?

The outward growth of urban development which may engulf surrounding villages and towns into a larger urban agglomeration


What is the other definition for suburbanisation?

The process of people, shops and factories moving out from the CBD into the suburbs


What is urban sprawl?

The spread of a urban area into a area that used to be countryside


What is ribbon development?

Where urban growth takes place alongside main roads


What are nodal points

They are where natural routes meet eg. Valleys


What are entrepôts

Big ports- without traders paying tax


What is the hinterland?

A large area linked to the port where goods are imported


What is municipal housing?

Housing owned by the government


What are green belts

A area of rural countryside around a urban area


What are the problems of suburbanisation?

1) high levels of segregation- middle classes in the suburbs while lower classes in the inner city
2)social facilities have a high cost
3) public transport has high costs
4)high dependency of cars which has environmental issues
5) rural life is lost


What are the causes of suburbanisation?

1)House hunters have been priced out of the expensive areas in the centre
2) businesses have relocated to the suburbs because of cheaper land


What are the solutions to urban sprawl

1) tax incentives encourage people to take in lodgers to share their homes
2) building in rural villages could encourage counter-urbanisation
3) high density housing could be built in brownfield sites


What is urban renewal?

The redevelopment of run down urban areas bringing about improvements


What are the three types of urban regeneration

1) property led- taken on by government, no involvement of the public
2) partnership: government takes main role but local councils and private developers help
3) private initiatives: private developers buy a property and redevelop it


What are the area that re-urbanisation affects?

Inner city residential
Inner city industrial


What three activities compete for land in urban areas?



What are the effects of competition?

1) Derelict sites- space not used effectively
2) Formation of social ghettos
3) Poorer people can’t compete with businesses and are forced out


What is a world cites

A city that has a economic, cultural and political significance beyond its own country


What are the key factors in the growth of world cities?

1) the development of TNCs
2) the communications revolution


What is the service value of a city to a firm?

How important the offices in that city are to the company


How does the total service value add up to make a hierarchy?

All the scores for all the firms in the city are added up to provide a total score for the city and that is ranked against other cites


What is the bid rent theory?

1) land would be taken by the land use that could afford the highest rent
2) land values decrease from the city centre
3)shops and offices would be able to afford highest rents followed by industry and residents


What is gradient analysis?

Measuring the changes in land values and population density from the city centre outwards


What do LIC cities tend to show in gradient analysis?

1) a steady rise over time in the central population density
2) increasing density as the city moves outwards


What do HIC cities tend to show in gradient analysis?

1) population density gradient reduces as the city moves outwards
2) the zone of maximum population density moves outwards
3) population density in inner city residential zones increases then decreases


What are the requirements of the burgess model?

•No physical differences in geography
•Free competition for space
•Development going outwards from core
•Free access to transport in all directions


What are the principles of the Hoyt model?

•industry develops along major routeways
•manufacturing industry and high class residential areas are never next to each other
•when areas of land use become established they tend to continue to grow outwards in that area


What does the Harris and ullman model argue?

Cities have more than one growth point and certain activities tended to join together


What is the biggest difference between LIC/ MIC cities and HIC cites?

The high class residential areas are close to the centre and the low class residences are on the periphery-opposite to HICS


Where are the shops in a Latin American city?

Extending outwards from the CBD along a major transport route


Why are brownfield sites useful?

•green space doesn’t have to be used up
•could be converted back in to green belt land
• Close to transport links so new ones don’t have to be created
• Rundown areas can be Gentrified


What type of land use do brownfield sites contain?

• Offices
• Retail Parks
• Recreation eg. Golf courses


What are some advantages of out of town shopping centres such as Fosse park

• Good transport links such as ring roads-A563 fosse Park
•Cheap land so ability for big car parks and expansion
• May relive pressure on CBD


What are the disadvantages of out of town shopping centres?

• Increased runoff and potential flooding
• Degeneration of the CBD because less people is being spent in the CBD
• May destroy habitats
• increased pollution


What is a brownfield site?

An area already built on


What is a greenfield site?

A area not already built on


What is a retail park?

A area where many retailers are based together


What is a anchor store?

Major retailers which attract customers to retail parks


What are suburban CBDs?

Area in the suburbs which has its own CBD


Where was manufacturing at the time of the industrial revolution in HICS

Close to the centre of cities


Why were industries located in the centre?

• industry requiring imports and exports were at the heart of the city
• industry was close to canals and railways
• industry’s were located near to workers housing which was near the centre


Why have industries in the inner city closed down or moved?

• Multi-storey buildings were no longer suitable and single-storey buildings were more efficient
•Sites were too small
• Land Prices too high
• The labour force had moved to the suburbs


What are the types of residential areas?

•High Density housing-usually found in the inner city because of the industrial revolution
•Low density housing-usually more modern and away from the city centre
•Apartments-multi-storey buildings, found in any part of the city
•shanty houses- lack normal services such as electricity and water, associated with LICs suburbs


Why is the CBD a desirable place for services such as retailing, finance and business?

It is very accessible as many road converge there


Is the CBD a zone of constant change?



What is vertical zoning?

Different land uses are found on different floors of the CBD because there is limited space for separate buildings


What are the strategies which are being used to reduce congestion in the CBD

•Park and ride schemes eg.Birstall, Leicester
•Tram network Eg. Nottingham
•Multi-storey car parks


What is the zone of assimilation?

An area which increasingly develops in the CBD


What is the zone of discard?

An area which was part of the CBD but isn’t anymore


What are some factors which are leading to the decline in the CBD?

•Congestion reduces accessibility
•city centre seen as dirty and unsafe


What are the difficulties with shanty towns?

•the residents could be evicted at any time
• Houses are not weatherproof-cold in winter
•no proper sanitation and water supply leading to disease such as cholera
•No refuse collection


What are the solutions to shanty towns?

•Low cost housing schemes
•Self help schemes, providing the materials but not building the house
•Provision of basic services eg piped water


Why is traffic congestion a problem in cities?

•Many cities were built before the need of roads
•There are more cars
•Commuting has resulted in more movement into cites


What have been the solutions to congestion?

• Integrated transport systems- bus and train routes are planned so they benefit the customers
• Road- ring roads, park and ride schemes