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As-Level Geography > Migration > Flashcards

Flashcards in Migration Deck (57):

What is migration?

The permanent movement of people and change of residence for more than one year


What is internal migration?

When someone moves within a country


What is out-migration?

The movement of internal migrants out of a region of a country


What is in-migration?

The movement of internal migrants into a region of a country


What is net migration?

The balance of people moving into a region or country to moving out


What is the source area

The place the migrants have come from


What are push factors?

Things people want to escape from in the source area


What are pull factors?

Things that attract the migrant to the destination area


What is distance decay?

The number of migrants declines as the distance between country’s increase


What is a migration stream?

Migrants sharing a common source area and destination area


What is chain migration?

When a small number of people move to a area and they are followed by a larger number of people


What are remittances?

Money sent home by the pioneer migrants


What is economic migration?

When people move for a better standard of living


What is a refugee?

Someone who is seeking refuge from a life threatening situation


What is a asylum seeker?

When someone who is a refugee reaches there final destination


What is step migration?

When people move from a small settlement to a slightly bigger one until they live in a major conurbation.


What is intra-urban migration?

When someone moves within a urban area


What are some of the push factors that can affect migration?

•Low wages,Poverty
•Lack of job opportunities, only unskilled jobs available.
•Lack of access to hospitals and schools
•Conflict, war and political oppression.


What are the pull factors?

•High wages, improved standard of living
•More job opportunities
•Better amenities and services
•Freedom from oppression


What are closing up costs?

Closing your affairs in the place of origin eg. Selling house


What are opening up costs?

Fees for buying new property, legal costs, finding a new job, daily living.


What are some of the barriers to migration?

•Closing/opening up costs
•Human dangers
•Government immigration laws


What are some reasons for return for migrants?

•They don’t like the culture
•They only studying there
•They miss their family


What is the Todaro Model?

How a individuals income will change as they migrate from a rural to urban area in a LIC


What are the sections in the systems model?

•Inputs eg.push and pull factors
•Processes eg. Decision making
•outputs eg.distance moved and the destination
•urban control system eg. Employment and leisure
•Rural control sub-system eg. lack of land


What are some gender based factors affecting migration?

• Men have migrated and sent money back to their families
• The women becomes head of the household in the place of origin
•Many jobs available in industry and heavy manufacturing which is male orientated


What are the age based factors affecting migration?

•Traditionally young people have migrated because they have few family ties
•Recently students have migrated to universities in HICs
•Older people migrate for retirement to places with a better climate


Why is distance a factor which affects migration?

•Long journeys take more time and cost more money
•It is harder to return to the point of origin if the migrant moves far from home
•Better roads and cheaper air travel have made distance less of a factor


Why is internal migration more popular than international migration?

•All migration is affected by distance decay
•The migrant will be better informed about destinations in his own country-common language


What are some of the causes of rural-urban migration?

•Poverty, Low wages and hard and boring jobs in the rural areas
• Population growth in the rural areas leads to underemployment
•Mechanisation of farming


What are the impacts on the rural area of migration to the urban area?

•Young, skilled people leave- greater inefficiency in farming and more poverty
•Remittances can be used to invest in farming-commercial farming
•Effect the standard of living of the ones that remain until commercial farming happens


What are the impacts on the city from rural-urban migration?

•Increased pressure on services
• Increased crime
•Rapid growth of the city


What direction are the migration streams going in Brazil?



Why was Brasilia built?

To move people away from the coastal cities


What have been the push factors of urban-rural migration in Andalucia?

•Racial tensions
•Poor quality of life in areas of decline


What have been the pull factors of urban-rural migration in Andalucia?

•Housing is often cheaper
•Cleaner environment
•Lower crime rates
•Better schools


State the 3 main causes of intra-urban migration

1)Changes in the individuals lifestyle
2)Changes to their employment
3)Changes to their affluence


What is international migration?

The movement of people across international frontiers from one country to another


What are the main factors that have driven recent international migration streams?

1)Population pressure in the source country
2)Economic differences between country’s so people move in search of a higher standard of living
3)War, natural disasters, lack of personal freedom and persecution


What is the Schengen Agreement?

Allows free movement of people living in the EU between member states


What is voluntary migration?

When migrants choose to move


What is forced migration?

When migrants have no alternative but to move


What is dependant migration?

When some family members have to move because other members of the family decide to move


Which groups of people have increasingly chosen to migrate?

•Highly skilled workers
•Women( half of all international migrants)


What was historically the biggest cause of forced migration?

Forced recruitment of labour eg. Slave trade


What are the main causes of forced migration today?

War and conflict


What are IDPs?

Internally displaced persons


Why has there been a blurred overlap between forced and voluntary migration recently?

Economic migrants have claimed to be refugees in order to get into HICs


What have been the causes of poor people moving from LICs to HICs?

•Population pressure in LICs and MICs
•The economic differences between LICs, MICs and HICs, these seem to be widening


What are the barriers to international migration?

•Limited information
• Cultural differences
•Immigration laws


What have been the social impacts of migration on the country of origin?

Positive:•Remaining workers are more productive
•Birth rate decreases,reducing class size and pressure on health care
Negative:•Older people become lonely
• Death rates rise because of ageing population


What have been the Economic impacts of migration on the country of origin?

Positive:•Housing shortages maybe reduced
•Farms become larger and more commercial
Negative:• Loss of young adults from the workforce
•Economic development slowed due to skilled workers leaving


What have been the Political impacts of migration on the country of origin?

Negative :•The government may have to adopt a pro natal policy
•The government may try to discourage emigration


What have been the social and cultural impacts of migration on the country of destination?

Positive:•A multi ethnic society can lead to greater appreciation to other cultures
•A different range of food becomes available to communities
Negative:•ethnic ghettos can develop leading to racial tension
•Schools have to teach kids how to speak the language aswell as teaching the native kids


What have been the economic impacts of migration on the country of destination?

Positive:•Migrants take the less desirable jobs
• skill shortages can be filled quick


What have been the political and cultural impacts of migration on the country of destination?

Positive:•The arts can be enhanced by immigrant culture eg music
Negative:•Discrimination can occur
•Anti immigration parties may get elected


What have been the environmental impacts of migration on the country of destination?

Negative:•can lead to more air and noise pollution