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Flashcards in Changing Places Deck (145):


A location with meaning. Places can be meaningful to individuals in ways which are personal or subjective. Places can also be meaningful at a social or cultural level and these meanings are shared by different groups or people


Physical Characteristics-What?

The landscape and/or natural features of a place eg: Mountains


Human Characteristics-What?

How the land is used, man made structures, types of people who are in that place


Sense of Place-What?

The subjective and emotional attachment of people to a place. This is usually via personal experience and knowledge of an area



Where a place is



The place where something happens or is set. Certain events may be associated with this place



Our knowledge and understanding of a place, a depth of feeling


Intensity of Experience-What?

The more enjoyable an experience , or feeling of safety, the greater the intensity



Someone who knows a place well and is familiar with it



Someone who doesn't know a place well, or someone who is marginalised


Reasons for feeling like an Outsider

A person could feel like an outsider in a place due to their:
-Sexual Orientation
-Social Status


Case Study-UK Segregation

In the UK, White Britons are leaving areas where they think they are the minority. The majority of these areas are urban areas. They are moving to rural areas


Case Study-UK Segregation-"The Ambridge Effect"

When an minority advances into a white majority area. This makes the whites feel like an outsider, and they move to where they feel like an insider


Case Study-UK Segregation-Causes of Segregation

-Whites leaving minority owned areas
-The "Open Door" immigration policy
-Some immigrants not conforming to social norms
-The opposition to the idea of a "Multicultural Society"


Case Study-UK Segregation-Conflicts and Changes due to Segregation

-Shops that cater for the minority
-The "Us" and "Them" mentality
-The rise of Right Wing Populism



The process by which national economies, societies and cultures have become increasingly integrated through the global network of trade,communication,transportation and immigration


Types of Globalisation

There are three types of globalisation:


How Economic Globalisation Will Affect a Place

More global companies will be allowed into a area. This will make the place more similar to other places


How Social Globalisation Will Affect a Place

The area and culture of a place will become "Westernised". This will make the place more similar to other places


How Political Globalisation Will Affect a Place

Western style democracies will be brought into a place. This will bring democracy into a place. It will also allow companies to enter a country, which will make the place more similar to other places


Impacts of Globalisation on a place

The main impact of globalisation on a place is that the place will become similar to other places. This process is known as Homogenisation


Perception of Place-What?

The way in which place is viewed or regarded by people. This can be influenced by media representation or via personal experience


Character of Place-What?

These are the physical and human features which distinguish one place from other


Categories of Place-Types

There are 4 different categories that places that be categorized into:
-Near Places
-Far Places
-Experienced Places
-Media Places


Near Place-What?

Places that when in, an individual feels safe, familiar and homelike


Far Places-What?

Places that are seen as foreign or different. The individual does not feel safe or see this places as familiar or homelike


Experienced Places-What?

Places that we have been to and experienced


Media Place-What?

A place whose representation comes from the media



The love of or emotional connections with a place or physical environment



The hatred of a place or physical environment


Genius Loci-What?

The special atmosphere of a particular place


Why can we be attracted to fictional places?

We have a strong sense of what these places are like, and they cannot be ruined as we cannot visit them as they do not exist


Endogenous Factors-What?

Internal factors that help shape the character of a place. These can be physical geographical features as well as human features


Exogenous Factors-What?

External factors that help shape the character of a place. These are generally the relations that a place has with other places that affect its characteristics


Types of Flows

The 4 most common flows are
-Money and Investment


Flow of Resources-What?

Raw materials, transport or infrastructure


How does Flow of Resources affect the character of place?

As the area builds new transport links, the place will become more connected to other places


Flow of People-What?

Migrants or workers come from outside of a place to work and/or live


How does Flows of People affect the character place?

As the area gains new people, the place will become more multicultural as it is full of different cultures


Flows of Ideas-What?

Urban planners, architects, businesses and artists may shape and change a place


How does Flow of Ideas affect the character of place?

As the shape of the place changes, it may become different. There is a risk that it might become homogenised. The locals won't like this, and may move out


Flow of Money and Investment-What?

Investment from a business based outside the area


How does Flow of Money and Investment affect the character of place?

As the area is invested in and gains money, this increases the economy of the area and crates jobs for the area


Placelessness -What?

The notion that a place could!d be anywhere as it lacks uniqueness


Clone Towns -What?

Urban retail areas dominated by national and in some cases international chain shops. In clone towns, there will be little unique character and independent shops


Why are Clone Towns an Issue-Businesses

Small independent businesses are lost as more chain stored enter an area


Why are Clone Towns an Issue-Choice

The amount of choice was reduced as chain stored only stock limited lines


Why are Clone Towns an Issue-Power

The chain stored had too much power and treated suppliers unfairly


Why are Clone Towns an Issue-CBD

Many chain stored relocated to our of town retail parks, this damaged the Central Business District and increased prices,congestion and pollution in the rural urban fringe


Why are Clone Towns an Issue-Identity

Regional identity reduced as all supermarkets stocked the same food and products


Case Study -Totnes and Costa Coffee

The town of Totnes did not want Costa Coffee to be located in the town


Case Study -Totnes and Costa Coffee-Why did Totnes Oppose Costa Coffee

-Threat to local cafe's
-Already has 42 places that well coffee
-Could damage local tourism and economy
-Totnes have a tradition of being independent
-Totnes has the lowest % of chain stored in the UK


How can we be connected to a place?

We can be connected to a place via:


What can connections between a place do?

Connections between one place to another can cause a number of changes to a location. Due to the complex nature of these changes, it can often cause conflict


The Process of Change

The type of change is due to the cause of the change (e.g.Volcanic eruption causes people to leave the area and go somewhere else). This changes creates a conflict, which needs to be resolved


Types of Change

There are 5 main types of change:


Types of Change-Demographics

A change in the make-up of an area


Types of Change-Social

A change in the people there


Types of Change-Social-Causes

Emigration, Lack of People, Politics


Types of Change-Cultural

A change in the culture of an area


Types of Change-Cultural -Causes

Immigration, Migration, Globalisation, A change in Norms


Types of Change-Economic

A change in the amount of money in the area


Types of Change -Economic -Causes

Deprivation, Lack of resources, Lack of Investment


Types of Change-Environmental

A change to the physical environment of the area


Types of Change -Environmental -Causes

Natural disasters, a change in weather, Global Warming and Climate Change


Place Change Case Study -Hackney-How the Change happened

-Hackney was a industry centred place.
-The growth in population caused many cultures to enter the area.
-Lots of "Middle Class " establishments instead of regular shops


Place Change Case Study -Hackney-Why the Place Changed

-After World War Two, industry moved
-Wave of immigration came into Hackney -Increase in Social Housing
-"Hipsters " have taken over the town


Place Change Case Study -Hackney-Conflicts Caused

-Locals cannot afford to live there
-£5 for a cappuccino
-Lack of integration between hipsters and locals


Place Change Case Study -Las Vegas-How the change happened

-Town started to grow in 1905
-Many high tech companies were located in Law Vegas
-Legalised Gambling


Place Change Case Study -Las Vegas-Why the change happened

-Tourists come to Vegas to gamble -City gains money
-Railroad introduced
-Nevada legalized gambling


Place Change Case Study -Las Vegas-Conflicts from Change

-Lots of globalisation, people might not want that
-Businesses don't have to pay city of state taxes -Conflict from outside cities
- Conflict with other gambling cities, like Atlantic City, New Jersey


Place Change Case Study -Kendal Green Belt-How the Place Changed

-An increase in housing.
-119 homes were bulit


Place Change Case Study -Kendal Green Belt-Why the change happened

-Government relaxed planning restrictions on green belt areas
-Many people wanted to live there


Place Change Case Study -Kendal Green Belt -Conflicts from Change

-Residents formed a action group and put up large banners
-Housing is out of character with the surrounding area
-Water Drainage polluted the river
-Full hospitals
-Full Schools


Stakeholders -What?

People or organisations who are involved in any aspect of "Changing Places"


Forces of Change-Stakeholders

There are a number of stakeholders involved in changing a place:
-International Organisations
-Local Community Groups
-Transnational Companies
-National Institutions
-Global Institutions


Forces of Change-Stakeholders-International Organisations

International organisations can provide funding to certain areas. Regions can use this to improve their area. International organisations can also provide policies and procedures quotas on what is allowed


Forces of Change-Stakeholders -Local Community Groups

A local community group is a community project centred on that community, normally to protest something. Communities try to create change for them


Forces of Change-Stakeholders-Transnational Companies

Bringing a Transnational Corporation into a area can affect the area by:
-Driving away local businesses
-Provide jobs for the area
-Potentially lead to Homogenization


Forces of Change-Stakeholders-National Institutions

National institutions, like the National Trust, can protect and conserve a place. This can prevent a area from changing


Forces of Change-Stakeholders-Global Institutions

-Non Government Organisations can protest against change being made
-World Trade Organisation can make trade of resources between areas much easier. This can lead to investment in the area


Forces of Change-Stakeholders- Individuals

Individuals can protest to change something. A individual can invest into a area, bringing jobs and improving the image of the area


Case Study -Detroit

Detroit was the main car manufacturing city in the USA, with many factories employing workers. The factories then closed down and relocated aboard. This lead the city to be deprived. In 2013, the city declare Bankruptcy


How are place representations formed?

-Social Media


Types of Place Representations -Formal

This is a representation based on fact. It uses census data, which is quantitative data


Types of Place Representations -Abstract

This kind of representation show the relationships between the place. Normally in the form maps


Types of Place Representations -Informal

These are opinion based. These can show only the best/worst in the place. This form of representation varies from person to person


Informal Representation Case Study -New York City-Paintings

-Central Park is shown as a peaceful and relaxing place
-Times Square is seen as busy and crowded


Informal Representation Case Study -New York City-Travel Brochure

-Manhattan is seen as the place where everything happens
-Brooklyn is seen as a cultured place for "Hipsters"
-Other boroughs do not get a mention (especially Staten Island, which annoys the creator of these flashcards)


Informal Representation Case Study -New York City-Empire State of Mind by Alicia Keys

This song portrays the city has a "concrete jungle" where people dreams can come true


Informal Representation Case Study -New York City-The Devil Wears Prada

This film shows NYC as a fashionable, designer place where you have to be a stereotype to fit in


Informal Representation Case Study -New York City-Social Media "Check ins"

The most popular check ins are tourist destinations, arenas and historical landmarks


How to change a places reputation

There are 3 says to change a places reputation:
-Re -Imagining


Rebranding -What?

The ways in which a place is redeveloped or marketed so that it gains a new identity. It can then attract new investors and visitors, and the process may involve both 're-imaging and regeneration


Re-imaging -What?

The remodelling of areas to counter negative perception and provide "post -industrial" functions e.g. :Retailing and Tourism


Regeneration -What?

A long term process involving social, economic and physical action to reserve decline and create sustainable communities


Factors that motivate rebranding-Locals

Rebranding could make the place more attractive for businesses and locals


Factors that motivate rebranding-Jobs

Rebranding can improve job opportunities


Factors that motivate rebranding-Investment

Rebranding can attract inward investment to the area


Factors that motivate rebranding-Environment

Rebranding can improve the quality of the built environment


Factors that motivate rebranding-people Moving

Rebranding can encourage people to move, live and work in an area


Factors that motivate rebranding-Stereotypes

Rebranding can change the negative stereotypes of an area


Factors that motivate rebranding-Status

Rebranding can raise the status of a place


Mechanisms of Rebranding

There are 6 ways to rebrand a place:
-Technology and Science


Rebranding Case Study -Birmingham-Why was it needed

-Birmingham had no distinct features
-Seen as "Dull"
-Experienced industrial decline
-Canals fell into disrepair
-Lack of investment in the area
-Lack of money in the area


Rebranding Case Study -Birmingham-What did they do?

-Built over 1.5 million square miles of floorspace
-New train station built
-Library Renovated
-Office space built
-Retail area built
-Public Squares built
-City made more accessible


Gentrification -What?

When the status of an inner urban area which has become unfashionable and neglected is upgraded and the status is improved


Advantages of Gentrification

+Brings investment into the area
+Creates Housing and jobs
+Improves buildings
+More people want to move there
+House prices increases
+Crime rate declines (in theory)


Disadvantages of Gentrification

-Homogenization chances increases
-Some locals are "Priced out" of the area and move
-Things cost more
-Can cause tension and conflict


Reason why people are moving away from urban areas

-High crime rate
-No jobs
-Over popular
-Can't afford to live there anymore


Reason why people are moving to rural areas

-Low Crime rate
-Less polluted
-Has a unique identity


Rural Area -What?

A rural area is an area of less than 10,000 people



The movement of people from urban areas to smaller villages, leading to an increase in the proportion of people living in areas defined as rural


Suburbanised Village-What?

An expanding village which means the boundary between rural and urban areas in difficult to maintain


Differences between and Original Village and a Suburbanised Village-Housing

Original: Detached built houses with slate/thatched roofs with some farms
Suburbanised: Some luxury homes, cramped estates


Differences between and Original Village and a Suburbanised Village-Inhabitants

Original: Farming and Primary jobs. Labouring/manual jobs
Suburbanised: People work in city, tertiary jobs, mostly commenters


Differences between and Original Village and a Suburbanised Village-Transport

Original: Bus service, some cars. Narrow, winding roads
Suburbanised: Increased transport links, major roads, more cars and wider roads


Differences between and Original Village and a Suburbanised Village-Services

Original: Village shop, small primary school, pub, village hall
Suburbanised: Brands might move in. Schools will expand, more restaurants and national brands


Differences between and Original Village and a Suburbanised Village-Social

Original: Small, close knit community
Suburbanised: Larger community, not as close, Lose the village way of life during the day as it is deserted during the day


Differences between and Original Village and a Suburbanised Village-Environment

Original: Quiet, relatively pollution free
Suburbanised: Loud, more polluted, more cars and a lack of green space


Effects of Counter Urbanisation of Rural Areas-Social

-Population Growth
-Change in population structure
-Market towns revived
-Schools change
-Loss of shops
-Enhancement of village hall/community services
-Change in bus services
-Different types of housing built
-Social conflict
-Traffic Increase
-Change in medical facilities


Effects of Counter Urbanisation of Rural Areas-Economical

-House price rise
-Market towns revived
Loss of shops
-Gain of shops and services in key settlements
-Different types of housing built
-Barn Conversions
-Wider economic base-More employment
-Growth in industry
-Change in employment structure


Effects of Counter Urbanisation of Rural Areas-Environmental

-Increased pressure on the countryside for recreation
-Increased flood potential
-Loss of farmland/greenland sites
-Increase on traffic
-Environmental pollution


Effects of Counter Urbanisation of Rural Areas-Political

-Market towns revived
-Activation of local councils and planning partnerships


Case Study-Suburbanised Village- St Ives-Location

St Ives is located in Cambridgeshire and is 100km north of London. It is close to the A1 road and the main east coast railway line


Case Study-Suburbanised Village- St Ives-Reasons for Becoming Suburbanised

-House prices in London has risen
-Migration towards areas like St Ives
-Good transport links to London
-Cities are becoming polluted
-Moving away as parents down want their children growing up in polluted cities


Case Study-Suburbanised Village- St Ives-Positive Impacts

-House prices has risen
-Area has more shops
-Area has a younger population


Case Study-Suburbanised Village- St Ives-Negative Impacts

-Congestion is a big problem during rush hour
-Flood risk increased
-Increased risk of Homogenisation



The sustainable exploitation of a previously underused local resource so that it generates wealth and employment


Farm Diversification-What?

The setting up of new, sometimes non agricultural enterprises by farmers in order to increase farm incomes


Rural Rebranding-Methods

There are 4 main ways to rural rebrand:
-Promote rural tourism
-Adding value locally
-Rural technologies
-Farm Diversification


Local Distinctiveness-What?

The opposite of Homogenisation. The place has a unique look and feel to it


Characteristics of Local Distinctiveness

-Social Capital
-Physical Environment
-Human Capital
-Cultural Heritage


Social Capital-What?

The ability of local institutions and people to take action together at a local level


Physical Environment-What?

The landscape around the place


Human Capital-What?

Skills, Attitude and capacity for risk taking, leadership in the population of an area


Cultural Heritage-What?

Historic buildings, railways, local history and traditions, cuisine and festivals


Local Distinctiveness-Location

If the place is located in a specific place, it can be seen as an advantage eg: Remoteness may attract people who want tranquillity


Rural Rebranding Strategies

-Specialist Food Products
-Rural heritage and tourism
-Arts and Media projects
-On Farm tourism
-Rural Industries
-Developing Rural energy
-Organic Farming
-On Farm diversification
-Food towns and Markets


Rural Rebranding Case Study-Cornwall

In Cornwall, a number of projects have ben done to rebrand Cornwall:
-Extreme Sports Academy at Watergate Bay
-Use of Arts and Crafts
-The Broadband Revolution
-Jamie Oliver's 15 Restaurant
-Combined Universities in Cornwall project (CUC)


Rural Rebranding Case Study-Cornwall-Extreme Sports Academy at Watergate Bay

-Targets young people
-Allows people to Surf or Windsurf
-People might want to come back after doing this, which brings more money into economy


Rural Rebranding Case Study-Cornwall-Use of Arts and Crafts

Many projects and events use Arts and Craft to promote Cornwall:
-Du Maurier Festival in Fowey
-Tate St Ives
-Hall for Cornwall
-International Male Voice Choir Festival


Rural Rebranding Case Study-Cornwall-The Broadband Revolution

-Fibre broadband now reaches 95% if the UK
-Cornwall is investing money into the project
-The input of broadband makes Cornwall more connected to the rest of the country


Rural Rebranding Case Study-Cornwall-Jamie Oliver's 15 Restaurant

-This restaurant employs local people
-Causes the Multiplier Effect in the local area


Rural Rebranding Case Study-Cornwall-Combined Universities in Cornwall project (CUC)

-Falmouth University and Exeter University have joined forces
-This project helps graduates set us businesses and secure jobs