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A Level Geography > Hazards > Flashcards

Flashcards in Hazards Deck (263):
1

Natural Hazard-What?

A natural hazard is a natural event that is a potential threat to human life or property

2

Classification of Natural Hazards-Geophysical

A geophysical hazard is a hazard that is driven by the Earth's own internal energy sources like Plate Tectonics

3

Classification of Natural Hazards-Atmospheric

Atmospheric hazards are driven by processes that are weather or climate related

4

Classification of Natural Hazards-Hydrological

A hydrological hazard is a hazard driven by water bodies, normally the ocean

5

Common Characteristics of Natural Hazards

-Dangerous affect to human life
-High in energy
-Has a rapid or short warning
-Has primary/secondary impacts
-Hazard causes people to adapt and mitigate

6

Impacts-Primary

Primary impacts are impacts that have an immediate effect on the area

7

Impacts-Secondary

Secondary impacts are the result of the primary impacts eg: Homelessness caused by destruction of buliding

8

The Dregg Disaster Model

According to this model, a disaster is when a hazard affects a vulnerable population

9

Factors that create a vulnerable population

-Lack of/Bad healthcare
-Bad preparation
-Young children
-Elderly Population
-Poor living conditions
-Steep slopes
-Lack of education
-Bad Water/ Lack of clean water
-Poor buliding quality
-Poor emergency services
-Less Income Country-Less money

10

Vulnerability-What

How susceptible a population is to the damage caused by a hazard

11

Perceptions of Hazards-Wealth

Richer people can move away from hazard affected areas, or build home to withstand hazards-Smaller risk for rich, High risk for Poor

12

Perception of Hazards-Religion

Some people adopt a fatalistic view towards hazards-Less risk for them

13

Perception of Hazards-Education

Those who are educated about the hazards have a better understanding of them, they can try to reduce the damage caused-Less risk for them

14

Perception of Hazards-Past Experience

Those who lived in hazard prone areas are more experienced-Less risk for them

15

Perception of Hazards-Personality

Some people do not fear them, they find them exciting-Less risk for them

16

Risk Perception-What

The subjective judgement that people make about the characteristics and severity of a risk

17

Risk-What?

The probability of a hazard event causing harmful consequences

18

Fatalism-What?

People accept that hazards are a natural occurrence. Loses are inevitable and people remain where they are. "God's Will"

19

Adaption-What?

People see that they can prepare for the event so they will survive

20

Fear-What?

People feel so vulnerable to an event that they move away to areas with no hazards

21

Factors that increase risk perceptions

-No control over hazard
-Many deaths
-No understanding of Hazard
-Lack of awareness
-Large Scale

22

Factors that decrease Risk Perception

-Controllable Hazard
-Few deaths
-Understanding of Hazard
-Not being aware of hazard-"Ignorance is Bliss"
-Small scale impacts
-"It will never happen to me" attitude

23

Responses to a hazard

-Prevention of hazard or reduce the magnitude of the hazard
-Mitigation of the impacts of the hazard
-Government intervention
-Do nothing-Fatalism

24

The Hazard Management Cycle

Once a hazard happens, the authorities respond to it. Then, the area is reconstructed. Mitigation, which reduces the severity of the hazard is next, which increases the areas preparedness for a disaster. Then, a disaster strikes and the cycle begins again

25

The Hazard Management Cycle-Mitigation

Actions aimed at reducing the severity of an event and lessening the impacts. Examples of mitigation are: buliding earthquake proof bulidings or educating people on what to do during a hazard. Mitigation can occur before or after the hazard event

26

The Hazard Mangement Cycle-Preparedness

Planning what to do during a hazard and how to respond to it. Examples:Warning systems, a risk management plan

27

The Hazard Mangement Cycle-Response

How people react during and immediately after the hazard event. Examples include hiding in a safe place, rescuing people who are trapped

28

The Hazard Management Cycle-Recovery

Getting the area back to a state of normality. Examples include: Rebuilding houses and restoring the key services in the area

29

The Hazard Mangement Cycle-Why a cycle?

It is a cycle as hazard events keep happening. Preparation and mitigation is a constant process

30

The Park Model-Pre Disaster

Before the hazard event, all is normal

31

The Park Model-Disruption

During and directly after the event, there is destruction of property and loss of life, before the people begin to respond

32

The Park Model-Relief

The immediate local and possibly global response in the form of aid,expertise and search and rescue

33

The Park Model-Rehabilitation

The resolving of longer term problems, including temporary housing solutions and the restoration of services

34

The Park Model-Reconstruction

The rebuilding of permanent houses and infrastructure

35

The Park Model-Reconstruction-Same

If buildings are the same as they were pre event, the area returns to normal

36

The Park Model-Reconstruction-Higher

If the buildings are to an improved standard than pre event, the area improves and the vulnerability to hazards decrease

37

Plate Tectonics-Core

The area of the centre of the Earth. It is the hottest part and is divided into the inner core and the outer core

38

Plate Tectonics-Core-Inner Core

A solid ball that is 1300KM thick and has a temperature of 7200degrees Celsius. It is made of iron and nickel

39

Plate Tectonics-Core-Outer Core

A semi molten area that is 2200KM thick. It contains lots of iron and nickel

40

Plate Tectonics-Mantle

The mantel is above the core, and is made out of silicate rocks.

41

Plate Tectonics-Crust

The outer layer of the Earth. There are two types of crust

42

Plate Tectonics-Types of Crust-Continental

The thicker and less dense type of crust

43

Plate Tectonics-Types of Crust-Oceanic

The thinner and more dense type of crust

44

Plate Tectonics-Spheres-Lithosphere

This sphere consists of the crust and the upper part of the mantle

45

Plate Tectonics-Spheres-Astenosphere

A plastic layer below the lithosphere. The tectonic plates float on the lithosphere

46

Plate Tectonics-Spheres-Mesosphere

The remaining part of the mantle which connects to the crust

47

Plate Tectonics-Moho

The line dividing the upper and lower mantle levels

48

Movement of Tectonic Plates-Convection Currents

The mantle is hottest close to the core, so lower parts of the asthenosphere warm up,become less dense, and rise. As they get to the top of the asthenosphere, they cool down and sink. These movements are convection currents. They create drag on the base of the plate, causing them to move

49

Movement of Tectonic Plates-Slab Pull

At a destructive plate margin,the denser crust is forced under the less dense crust. The sinking of the plate edges pull the rest of the plate,causing it to move

50

Movement of tectonic plates-Ridge Push

At constructive plate margins,magma rises to the surface and creates new crust with a slope. The crust cools and becomes denser,with causes the plates to move apart due to pressure. This process is also known as gravitational sliding

51

Movement of Tectonic Plates-Sea Floor Spreading

As tectonic plates move apart,magma rises to fill the gap, cools and creates new crust. This new crust is dragged apart and more crust is formed between it. This causes the sea floor to get wider

52

Plate Boundaries-Constructive

A constructive boundary is when two plates seperate

53

Plate Boundaries-Destructive

Causes when two plates collide with each other

54

Plate Boundaries-Landforms-Constructive-Mid Ocean Ridge

A mid ocean ridge is caused by sea floor spreading. Mid ocean ridges can also create transform faults,which cut across the ridges and occur a right angles to the plate boundary. Volcanic eruptions along the fault can create submarine volcanos,which can grow to above sea levels

55

Plate Boundaries-Landforms-Constructive-Rift Valley

Formed when the lithosphere stretches,causing parallel faults. The land between the faults collapses into deep wide valleys,separated blocks of land called Horsts. Example:Great African Rift Valley

56

Plate Boundaries-Landforms-Destructive-Oceanic and Continental-Deep Ocean Trench

The oceanic plates subducts under the continental plate as it is denser. The point of collision is when the oceanic plate bends and forms a deep ocean trench.

57

Plate Boundaries-Landforms-Destructive-Oceanic and Continental-Fold Mountains

The continental plate is uplifting,compressed,buckled and folded to create fold mountains eg:The Andes

58

Plate Boundaries-Landforms-Destructive-Oceanic and Continental-Magma Creation

The decending oceanic plate starts to melt in the Benioff Zone. This process causes magma to be created

59

Plate Boundaries-Landforms-Destructive-Oceanic and Oceanic-Deep Ocean Trench

When two organic plate collide, the faster or denser plate subducts beneath the other. This creates a deep ocean trench

60

Plate Boundaries-Landforms-Destructive-Oceanic and Oceanic-Island Arcs

The collision of plate also causes melting at the benioff zone. This magma rises to create submarine volcanoes, which can grow into island arcs

61

Plate Boundaries-Landforms-Destructive-Continental and Continental-Fold Mountains

The collision of the plates does not cause subduction. The plates become uplifted and buckled to form fold mountains

62

Plate Boundaries-Landforms-Conservative

There are no landforms formed on conservative plate boundaries

63

Magma plumes-What?

A magma plume is a vertical column of extra hot magma that rises up from the mantle

64

Magma Plumes and the formation of Volcanoes

Volcanoes form above magma plumes. The magma plume remains stationary,the crust moves above it. Volcanoes form in the part of the crust that is above the plume. As the crusts move, a chain of volcanoes is formed,like the volcanic islands of Hawaii

65

Volcanoes-Viscosity

The thickness of lava

66

Volcanos-Types of Lava-Basalt

Lava that has 48%-52% viscosity

67

Volcanoes-Types of Lava-Andesite

Lava that has 52%-63% viscosity

68

Volcanoes-Types of Lava-Dacite

Lava that has 63%-68% viscosity

69

Volcanoes-Types of Lava-Rhyolite

Lava that has 68%-77% viscosity

70

Why is rhyolite lava the deadliest

It sticks to the top of the volcano and builds up pressure and eventually erupts at a high magnitude

71

Types of Volcanoes-Fissure

Have very liquid lava flows,wide spread, lava is emitted from fractures. Example:River Plateau in Colombia

72

Types of Volcanoes-Shield

Liquid lava is emitted from central vent. Large in size. Example:Hawaiian Volcanoes

73

Types of Volcanoes-Cinder Cone

Explosive liquid lava,small, emitted from a central valve. Can become shield volcano. Example:Mount Taylor

74

Types of Volcanoes-Composite

More viscous lava emitted from a central vent. Example:Mount St Helens

75

Types of Volcanoes-Volcanic Dome

Very viscous lava,commonly occurs adjacent to craters of composite volcanoes. Example:Mount Lassen

76

Types of Volcanoes-Caldera

Very large composite volcanoes that collapsed after a explosive period. Example:Yellowstone

77

Location of Volcanoes

Most volcanoes occur near constructive and destructive plate margins. A small number are formed near magma plumes

78

Volcanic Eruptions-Constructive Boundaries

Basalt lava is formed here. Eruptions are frequent and long lasting,but not violent. If

79

Volcanic Eruptions-Destructive Boundaries

Andesitic and rhyolitic lava is formed here. Eruptions are intermittent and short,but violent as viscous lava blocks vents,causes pressure to build, which can be reduced by a violent eruption

80

Volcanoes-Magnitude

Volcanic events range is size. Magnitude is measured using the Volcanic Explosively Index, which grades companies based on the amount of material ejected and how high the material is blasted

81

Volcanoes-Frequency

How often an eruption occurs. Less frequent eruptions are normally larger in magnitude

82

Volcanoes-Randomness vs Regularly

Some erupt at regular intervals, while others erupt at random intervals

83

What determines eruption type-Crystals

Crystals in magma makes it more viscous. Highly crystallized magma means it is more likely to explode

84

What determines eruption type-Gases

If gas cannot escape highly viscous magma, it creates explosions

85

What determines eruption type-Temperature

Low temperature magma flows easily and is more likely to erupt explosively

86

Types of Eruption-Hawaiian

Basatic lava flows gently from a central vent

87

Types of eruption-Icelandic

Basaltic lava flows gently from fissures

88

Types of Eruption-Strombolian

Thicker basaltic lava occasionally flows. Frequent explosive eruptions of tephra and steam

89

Type of Eruptions-Vulcanian

Thicker basltic,andestic and rhyolitic lava flows. Less frequent but violent eruptions of gas,ash and tephra

90

Types of Eruptions-Vesuvian

Thick basaltic,andesitic and rhyolitic lava flows. Very violent gas explosions blast ash high into the sky, following long period of inactivity

91

Types of Eruptions-Peléean

Andesitic and rhyolitic lava flows. Very violent eruptions of nuées ardentes

92

Types of Eruptions-Plinian

Rhyolitic lava flows. Exceptionally violent eruptions of gas,ash and pumice. Torrential rainstorms causes devastating lahars

93

Volcanic Hazards-Pyroclastic Flow

A mixture of super heated gas,ash and volcanic rock that flows down the side of the volcano. It travels quickly,can can cause widespread death and destruction

94

Volcanic Hazards-Lava Flows

Lava flow from a vent down the side of the volcano. Speed and distance travelled depends of viscosity. Low viscosity lava can travel faster than high viscosity. Lava flows destroy everything in their path, but as they are slow,allow time for people to evacuate

95

Volcanic Hazards-Volcanic Gases

Lava contains carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide which go into the atmosphere during a eruption. These gases can be harmful to life

96

Volcanic Hazards-Tephra

Material that has been ejected from the volcano. Materials can be of many sizes and can travel thousand of kilometres from the volcano. Large pieces can damage buildings and kill people,smaller pieces can damage vegetation

97

Volcanic Hazards-Lahars

A mixture of volcanic material and water mixes. These flow very quickly and travel far. Lahars can bury or destroy habitats,and buildings

98

Volcanic Hazards-Acid Rain

The reaction of volcanic gases and water vapour from the atmosphere. This falls as acid rain. This can damage ecosystems and cause stone and metal to deteriorate

99

Volcanic Hazards-Social Impacts

-People killed
-Buildings and infrastructure destroyed
-Fires from pyroclastic and lava flows destroy buildings
-Deaths by mudflow and flooding

100

Volcanic Hazards-Environmental Impacts

-Destruction of ecosystems
-Acidification of aquatic ecosystems
-Acid rain removes nutrients from soil
-Enhanced Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming
-Reduction of Earths temperature

101

Volcanic Hazards-Economic Impacts

-Business destroyed-No jobs
-Expensive to repair buliding damage
-Eruption can create a form of tourism

102

Volcanic Hazards-Political Impacts

-Agriculture damage causes food shortages-Creates unrest
-Government spends money on repairing buliding rather than improving services-Slows down development

103

Prediction of Volcanic Eruptions-Monitoring-Seismic Activity

Microquakes indicate rising magma cracking overlaying rocks

104

Prediction of Volcanic Eruptions-Monitoring-Ground Deformations

Bulging of ground caused by rising magma

105

Prediction of Volcanic Eruptions-Monitoring-Upwards movement of iron rich magma

Changing magnetism means magma levels or rising

106

Prediction of Volcanic Eruptions-Monitoring-Rising water and ground temperature

An increase in water and ground temperature means magma is rising

107

Prediction of Volcanic Eruptions-Monitoring-Case Study Location

Iceland

108

Prevention of Volcanic Eruptions

You cannot prevent a eruption. However, it is possible to prevent eruptions causing a risk for people like preventing surrounding land from being built on

109

Preparing for a volcanic eruption

-Install monitoring systems to predict a eruption
-Authorities to cordon off areas affected by volcano if eruption is imminent
-Individual Preparedness-First aid kit
-Communities lead search and rescue services
-Drills

110

Adapting to a Volcanic Eruption

-Strengthen buildings to reduce the risk of collapse
-Living by a volcano gives fertile land and a cheap source of geothermal energy

111

Preparing for a Volcanic Eruption-Case Study-Vesuvius

-Put trees on banks
-Developed hazard maps
-Harmonic Tremmer-Low frequency means more magma
-Evacuation Plan-Uses tram, 80 ships and 16000 people will assist with the evacuation

112

Volcano Case study-Montserrat-Causes

Destructive plate boundary on a island arc. The south American oceanic plate subducted beneath the Caribbean continental plate. This created the Chances Peak volcano which erupted

113

Volcano Case study-Montserrat-Hazards

-Volcanic ash
-Dust
-Pyroclastic flow
-Andesitic Flow

114

Volcano Case study-Montserrat-Primary Impacts

-South of island was covered in ash
-2/3 of all ones were flattened
-Airport and Infrastructure was completely destroyed

115

Volcano Case study-Montserrat-Secondary Impacts

-Fires from pyroclastic flow killed 19 people
-Homelessness
-Businesses destroyed
-Less aid arrived

116

Volcano Case study-Montserrat-Responses-Short Term

-Montserrat volcano Observatory was set up
-South of island became a exclusion zone
-NGO's set up temporary schools and provided medical support
-Warning System set up
-UK and US Navy troops came to aid evacuation process
-£17 million of UK aid paid from temporary housing and water purification system

117

Volcano Case study-Montserrat-Responses-Long Term

-3 year redevelopment plan was funded by UK
-Monserrateians were given British citizenship-Move if they wanted
-2005-many people moved back-South part remained an exclusion zone
-Vegetation is slowly regrowing due to fertile land
-Warning system is tested daily at midday
-Rebuilding as a tourist destination with volcano as a attraction
-UK have paided over £420 million in aid

118

Volcano Case Study-Nevada Del Ruiz-Causes

A destructive plate boundary. The Nazca plate subducted under the south American continental plate

119

Volcano Case Study-Nevada Del Ruiz-Hazards

-Plinian eruptions
-Pyroclastic flow
-Lahars
-Tephra
-Volcanic Ash
-Andestic and Dacitic lava

120

Volcano Case Study-Nevada Del Ruiz-Impacts-Primary

-23000 dead
-85% of Amero was destroyed
-35 million tonnes of material erupted
-Lahars
-Pyroclastic Flow
-Infrastructure destroyed

121

Volcano Case Study-Nevada Del Ruiz-Impacts-Secondary

-8000 were made homelessness
-Agriculture and Businesses damaged
-No jobs
-Roads blocked-No aid
-People stuck in Lahars
-Diseases spread

122

Volcano Case Study-Nevada Del Ruiz-Responses-Short Term

-After 3 days,government did not know what to do
-Health workers vaccinated the diseased
-Rescuers were delayed due to damaged
-Army burnt bodies and killed animals to prevent disease
-Aid was not given quickly-Lack of helicopters
-NGO's gave aid

123

Volcano Case Study-Nevada Del Ruiz-Responses-Long Term

-Warning systems established
-Evacuation plans made
-Volcano drills
-Public education about volcanoes
-Hazard maps made

124

Volcano Case Study-Nevada Del Ruiz-Why was it so bad?

Residents did not take the warning seriously, meaning that they were not prepared. Helicopters went to the highest bidder, not those who needed it

125

Human Responses to a eruption-Case Study-Mount Etna

To prevent damage being caused, the authorities have used a range of methods to prevent or limit the damage caused by the eruption of Mount Etna

126

Human Responses to a eruption-Case Study-Mount Etna-Methods Used

-Earthworks to redirect lava from important areas
-Earth dam build-Holds lava
-Blocks dropped into lava to plug it
-Explosives used to divert lava into new channels
-Closure of Catania Airport

127

Earthquakes-How

Earthquakes are caused by the tension that builds up at the plate boundaries. When the plates jerk past each other, it sends out shockwaves. These are earthquakes

128

Focus-What?

The point where the earthquake occurs

129

Epicentre-What?

The point on the surface exactly above the focus

130

Seismic Shockwaves-What?

The waves of energy released as the rock jolts apart. These begin at the focus and spread outwards

131

Earthquake Formation-Constructive Boundary

The plates move away from each other, creating faults. These can widen and lead to frictional stress building up. A shallow earthquake occurs to release this pressure

132

Earthquake Formation-Destructive Boundary

Oceanic plate subducts under continental plate and melts in the benioff zone,due to heat and friction. Pressure builds and is released as a medium or deep focus earthquake

133

Earthquake Formation-Conservative Boundary

Friction from the plates sliding past each other build up. The pressure can be released as a powerful shallow focus earthquake

134

Earthquake Formation-Collision Boundary

Pressure can build up during the formation of mountains. Released as shallow focused earthquake

135

Earthquakes-Magnitude and Frequency

Low magnitude earthquakes happen daily. Very high magnitude earthquakes are less frequent

136

Earthquakes-Randomness

Earthquakes are random when they occur. They occur on or near plate boundaries only

137

Earthquakes-Predictability

Scientists can monitor the tectonic plates to see which areas are at risk. They cannot predict when or the magnitude

138

Factors that affect Earthquakes-Boundary type

High magnitude earthquakes occur on destructive boundaries. Low magnitude earthquakes occur on conservative boundaries

139

Factors that affect Earthquakes-Depth of Focus

Deep focus gives high frequency earthquakes but cause less damage. Shallow focus earthquakes cause more damage-Waves have travelled less distance

140

Types of Seismic Waves-P Waves

The fastest and reach surface first. They travel like sound waves, through the mantle and core to the opposite side of the earth

141

Types of Seismic Waves-S Waves

Travel half as fast as S waves. They travel like a skipping rope. They can travel though the mantle but not the core

142

Types of Seismic Waves-Love Waves

These waves are the slowest and cause the most damage

143

Types of Seismic Waves-Rayleigh Waves

These waves radiate from the epicentre in low frequency rolling motions

144

Earthquakes-Social Impacts

-Buildings collapse, people are killed,injured or made homeless
-Gas and power lines break-Fires that kill
-Water pipes break-Flooding
-Diseases spread due to lack of clean water

145

Earthquakes-Environmental Impacts

-Chemical can damage environment due to destruction of power plants
-Fires can destroy ecosystem

146

Earthquakes-Economic Impacts

-Destroys business premises-No jobs-Damages regional economy
-Country may have to rely on expensive imports
-Building and Infrastructure damage is expensive to repair

147

Earthquakes-Political Impacts

-Food,water and energy shortages causes unrest
-Country might need to borrow money-Creates debt
-Money that would have been used for development is used for repairs

148

Preventing a Earthquake

You cannot prevent a earthquake from happening,but you can prevent it causing damage example:prevention of building houses on ground prone to liquefaction

149

Preparing for a Earthquake

-Earthquake Warning System
-Earthquake plans
-Community lead search and rescue teams

150

Adapting to Earthquakes

-Retrofitting buildings-Make them able to withstand a Earthquake

151

Earthquake Case Study-Haiti-Cause

The North American plate and the Caribbean plate have a conservative plate boundary. They rub together and create friction, then get stuck. This builds up pressure that is released as a Earthquake

152

Earthquake Case Study-Haiti-Impacts-Primary

-Port-Au-Prince was flattened
-230000 dead
-50% of poorly built building made of concrete collapsed including police station
-180000 homes destroyed
-5000 schools damaged or destroyed
-Liquefaction caused building foundations to subside
-Infrastructure was severely destroyed

153

Earthquake Case Study-Haiti-Impacts-Secondary

-Strong aftershocks-6.1 magnitude earthquake
-Government was crippled
-Port Au Prince became lawless due to no police
-After 1 year-Cholera killed over 1500, 1.5 million were homeless

154

Earthquake Case Study-Haiti-Responses-Short Term

-International search teams struggled in the dense environment
-Local people helped to look for survivors
-US Military took control of airport to speed up aid distribution and reopened the pier
-16000 UN troops restored law and order
-UN provided basic food necessities-Farmers were supported
-NGO's provided bottled water and water purification tablets
-Emergency surgeries were set up to perform life saving operations
-3000 latrines built
-Homeless were placed in emergency camps

155

Earthquake Case Study-Haiti-Responses-Long Term

-$11.5 billion reconstruction project to be completed in 2020
-Farming sector was reformed-Encourages Self Sufficiency
-Rebuilding of buildings
-Slums were demolished-High risk area
-Affordable New homes
-Economic activities moved from Port Au Prince
-UN strategy developed-creates jobs in clothing manufacturing,tourism and agriculture, reduced uncontrolled urbanization

156

Earthquake Case Study-Haiti-Why were people vulnerable

-Very shallow focus
-Epicentre close to Port Au Prince
-Poor building quality
-Buildings built on top of buildings
-Haiti is a LEDC
-Crowded housing areas
-1/2 lived in poverty
-2/5 were unemployed

157

Tsunamis-What

Tsunamis are a primary impact of a Earthquake

158

Tsunami-Formation

First, a earthquake is created on a destructive plate boundary. The fault then ruptures and the sea bed thrusts upwards. This causes giant ripples. The tide then goes out,water forms trough of wave. Shallow water dies, the back of wave is traveling fast, when it reaches the front, a vertical wall of water is formed

159

Ways to Plan,Predict and Prepare for a Tsunami

-Warning System
-Monitor seismic activity
-Education
-Drills
-Zoning at risk areas-Not developing in high risk areas
-Leaving natural protection
-Planting New natural protection
-Moving villages inland
-Hard engineering around major cities
-Homes on stilts

160

Tsunami Case Study-Indian Ocean- Impacts-Primary

-300000 died,thousands of undiscovered bodies
-Removal of vegetation and top soil
-Destruction of Infrastructure
-Destruction of Coastal settlement-Banda Aceh was destroyed

161

Tsunami Case Study-Indian Ocean- Impacts-Secondary

-Widespread homelessness
-Fishing,Agriculture and tourism sectors destroyed
-Contaminated water and soil
-Increase in gap between rich and poor

162

Tsunami Case Study-Indian Ocean- Responses-Short Term

-Massive international relief efforts
-Foreign military troops provided assistance

163

Tsunami Case Study-Indian Ocean- Responses-Long term

-Large scale reconstruction program
-Aid distribution was delayed due to political barriers
-Government prejudices were highlighted-lower class was ignored in India
-Tourist resorts were quickly rebuilt, locals were forced out
-Tsunami Warning System set up
-Education and Drills
-Hazard mapped coastal zones

164

Earthquake and Tsunami Case Study-Japan-Cause

The Pacific Plate subducts under North American Plate. The Pacific plate suddenly slipped upwards. This caused a earthquake followed by a Tsunami

165

Earthquake and Tsunami Case Study-Japan-Impacts-Primary

-Buildings collapsed
-Complete destruction caused by tsunami
-5000 KM² of flooding
-Cities were ruined-Transport links destroyed
-Oil refinery went up in flames
-17000 died in Sendai area
-18000 dead or missing due to tsunami

166

Earthquake and Tsunami Case Study-Japan-Impacts-Secondary

-Half a million homeless
-Over a million without water, over 6 million homes without electricity
-Food,Water,petrol and medicinal supplies shortages
-700 aftershocks
-Explosions at Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant

167

Earthquake and Tsunami Case Study-Japan-Responses-Short Term

-Survivors lived in camps
-Rescue Missions
-100000 soldiers sent to establish order and distribute supplies
-International Aid given
-Exclusion zone around Power plant
-Shut down of all Japanese Nuclear power plants

168

Earthquake and Tsunami Case Study-Japan-Responses-Long Term

-Unveiled new tsunami warning system in 2013
-Government set up zones to encourage rapid rebuilding
-2016-Nuclear Power Plants restart
-100000 residents of Fukushima have not returned home
-Radioactive rubble still awaiting permanent disposal as no prefecture accepted it
-$300 billion was the total cost of the hazard

169

Tropical Storms-Formation

A cluster of thunderstorms form over a warm ocean . Moisture rises to create clouds. A vertical column hot air rises and begins to spin,AKA the Corvallis effect. The eye is formed, followed by the eyewall. The storm then hits land, and loses energy

170

Tropical Storms-The eye

The centre of the storm

171

Tropical Storms-The Eyewall

A area below the eye of towering rainfalls with rising hot air

172

Tropical Storms-Locations

All tropical storms form between the tropics of cancer and Capricorn

173

Factors that affect the distribution of Tropical Storms-Oceans

Tropical storms form in oceans as they are formed by moisture and energy from the sea

174

Factors that affect the distribution of Tropical Storms-Temperature

The sea temperature needs to be more than 26°C for tropical storms to form

175

Factors that affect the distribution of Tropical Storms-Atmospheric Instability

Tropical storms form in regions of intense atmospheric instability where warm air is forced to rise

176

Factors that affect the distribution of Tropical Storms-Rotation of Earth

A certain amount of spin is needed to cause the Corvallis effect. This spin increases as you get further from the equator.

177

Tropical Storms-Hazards-Strong Winds-Characteristics

Wind speeds in excess of 120KpH,stronger winds occur at eyewall

178

Tropical Storms-Hazards-Strong Winds-Primary Effects

-Tearing off roofs
-Damaging power lines

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Tropical Storms-Hazards-Strong Winds-Secondary Effects

-Debris can cause transport disruption
-Widespread power outages
-Fires

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Tropical Storms-Hazards-Storm Surges-Characteristics

A huge surge of water sweeps inland from the sea and floods low lying areas

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Tropical Storms-Hazards-Storm Surges-Causes

A combination of low atmospheric pressure of the tropical storm and powerful winds

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Tropical Storms-Hazards-Storm Surges-Primary Effect

-Loss of life
-Flooding of agriculture land
-Polluted freshwater supplies
-Housing destroyed
-Coastal erosion

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Tropical Storms-Hazards-Storm Surges-Secondary Effect

-Diseases spread

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Tropical Storms-Hazards-Coastal and River Flooding-Characteristics

An excess of 200metres of rainfall in just a few hours can lead to flooding

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Tropical Storms-Hazards-Coastal and River Flooding-Primary Effects

-Urban flash flooding
-Rise in river levels
-Overwhelmed drains

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Tropical Storms-Hazards-Coastal and River Flooding-Secondary effects

-Houses,Infrastructure and land destroyed

187

Tropical Storms-Hazards-Landslides-Formation

Intense rainfall increases the hydrostatic pressure within a slop. This weakens the slop and it collapses

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Tropical Storms-Hazards-Landslides-Primary Effects

-Houses,Infrastructure and land destroyed
-Can trigger Earthquakes

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Tropical Storms-Frequency

As global temperatures rise,frequency increases. This could be due to an increase in monitoring

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Tropical Storms-Magnitude

In theory,if sea temperature rises, magnitude increases

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Tropical Storms-Regularity

They will always occur in a season. For example:US hurricane season is August-October

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Tropical Storms-Predictability

Can be predicted to an extent by looking at weather patterns. Only hit certain areas due to location of formation

193

Tropical Storms-Measurement

They are measured on the Saffir-Simpson scale. It measures windspeed, but does not take into account the impacts caused by the tropical storm

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The Saffir-Simpson Scale-Tropical Depression

Wind speed-0-38 mph
Storm Surge-None

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The Saffir-Simpson Scale-Tropical Storm

Wind speed-39-73 mph
Storm Surge-0-3ft

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The Saffir-Simpson Scale-Category One

Wind speed-74-95mph
Storm Surge-4-5ft

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The Saffir-Simpson Scale-Category Two

Wind Speed-96-110mph
Storm Surge-6-8ft

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The Saffir-Simpson Scale-Category Three

Wind Speed-111-130 mph
Storm surge 9-12ft

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The Saffir-Simpson Scale-Category Four

Wind Speed-131-155mph
Storm surge-13-18ft

200

The Saffir-Simpson Scale-Category Five

Wind speed >156 mph
Storm Surge->18 ft

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Tropical Storms-Impacts-Social

-People may drown, be injured or killed
-Destroyed Homes
-Damaged electricity cables
-Sewage outflows-Contaminated water
-Diseases spread due to lack of clean water
-Food shortages-Farmland damaged

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Tropical Storms-Impacts-Political

-Unrest and conflict
-Money that would have been used for development is used for repairs

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Tropical Storms-Impacts-Economic

-Repairs cost a lot of money
-Due to damage,businesses can't trade
-Due to damage to agricultural land, commercial farming is destroyed

204

Tropical Storms-Impacts-Environmental

-Eroded beaches
-Coastal habitats destroyed
-Polluted environment
-Landslides block watercourses,changing their course

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Prevention of a tropical storm

You cannot prevent it from it happening,but you can prevent damage from occurring

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Preparing for a Tropical Storm-Methods

-Education
-Minor structure improvements
-Preparing emergency supplies
-Plan evacuation routes
-Use models to track hurricanes

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Adapting to a tropical storm-Methods

-Land zoning-low value land at coast
-Properties on stilts
-Storm surge elevation markers
-Retrofitting of buildings

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Adapting to a tropical storm-Case Study-Darwin

-Mandatory wind resistant building structures
-Regular building inspections
-Regular building maintenance

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Adapting to a tropical storm-Case Study-Bangladesh

-Has monitoring centre
Multi use concrete cyclone shelters
-Buildings on stilts

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Tropical Storms Case Study-Hurricane Katrina-Primary Impacts

-Communication infrastructure damaged
-Major roads in/out of New Orleans were damaged
-Levees and floodwalls breached
-80% of New Orleans underwater
-Extensive building damage
-Damage to forestry
-1464 died

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Tropical Storms Case Study-Hurricane Katrina-Secondary Impacts

-1.7 million without electricity
-Nearly everyone became unemployed-no taxes collected
-Oil production effected-Petrol prices rose
- A Million made homeless
-Evacuated residents were spread across the country, many went to Houston
-Looting and Civil disturbances became a serious problem

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Tropical Storms Case Study-Hurricane Katrina-Short Term Responses

-People prepared for it
-Mandatory evacuation-not efficient as 21% had no transport
-Sandbags and boarded up windows
-Insurance payouts
-Evacuated to the Superdome-aid went there
-National Guard handed out aid
-Helicopters helped evacuation

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Tropical Storms Case Study-Hurricane Katrina-Long Term Responses

-New education system
-New healthcare system
-Raised the height of Levees
-Flood wall built
-Improved pumps
-Built a 2 mile wall
-Making wetlands
-Built floodgates
-Hurricane preparedness week
-Rebuilt some homes

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Tropical Storms Case Study-Hurricane Katrina-Why was New Orleans vulnerable

-By the gulf of Mexico
-Just above the tropic of Cancer
-Lake to north of city
-It's flat
-Below sea level
-Wetlands to the south of Louisiana
-Low flood wall
-Short and weak levees

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Tropical Storms Case Study-Cyclone Nargis-Primary Effects

-140000 died
-Destroyed power and water supplies
-Damaged homes
-Huge storm surge

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Tropical Storms Case Study-Cyclone Nargis-Secondary Effects

-Homelessness
-Businesses destroyed
-No communication network
-No clean water
-Contaminated wells
-Diseases spread
-No food-crops destroyed
-Rice famine

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Tropical Storms Case Study-Cyclone Nargis-Short Term Responses

-Military restored basic services
-Basic aid given by Bangladesh and India

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Tropical Storms Case Study-Cyclone Nargis-Long Term Responses

-Camps set up
-Aid was rejected
-Myanmar still does not have a adequate warning system

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Wildfires-What

An uncontrollable fire

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Wildfires-Types-Ground Fire

Where the ground burns. It is a slow smouldering fire with no flame and little smoke

221

Wildfires-Types-Surface Fire

Where leaf litter and low lying vegetation burns

222

Wildfire-Types-Crown Fire

The fire moves rapidly through the canopy. Fires are intense and fast moving

223

Wildfires-Causes-Physical

-Lightning
-Drought conditions
-Extreme heat
-Dry vegetation
-Spontaneous Combustion
-Volcanic lava/ash

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Wildfires-Causes-Human

-Arson
-Campfires
-Cigarettes
-Broken glass
-Barbeques
-Matches
-Collapse of Power Lines

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The Fire Triangle-What

3 elements that are needed to create a wildfire

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The Fire Triangle-Elements

-A source of fuel
-Oxygen
-Heat

227

Optimum Conditions for a wildfire-Vegetation

-Thick undergrowth or closely spaced trees
-Trees that contain a lot of oil

228

Optimum Conditions for a wildfire-Fuel

-Fine dry material
-Large amount-Continuous cover

229

Optimum Conditions for a wildfire-Climate

-Has dry season and wet season
-Strong winds-provides oxygen

230

Wildfires-Impacts-Environmental-Primary

-Destruction of habitats and ecosystems
-Animals die-impacts food chain
-Increase of carbon dioxide in atmosphere
-Atmospheric pollution

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Wildfires-Impacts-Environmental-Secondary

-Lack of trees-decrease of nutrients,increase in flooding risk
-Greenhouse effect strengthen
-Climate change

232

Wildfires-Impacts-Social-Primary

-Loss of life
-Temporary displacement
-Disruption to power supplies
-Communication services damaged

233

Wildfires-Impacts-Social-Secondary

-Possible need for New employment
-People may need to obey rules and regulations towards forest areas

234

Wildfires-Impacts-Economic-Primary

-Damage to buildings and services
-Financial loss
-Businesses lost
-Loss of crops and livestock

235

Wildfires-Impacts-Economic-Secondary

-Rebuilding and relocation cost
-Replacement of farm infrastructure and livestock
-Cost of future preparedness and mitigation strategies

236

Wildfires-Impacts-Political-Primary

-Actions of emergency services
-State of emergency declared
-Pressure on authorities to prioritize responses to the wildfire

237

Wildfires-Impacts-Political-Secondary

-Develop strategies for preparedness and mitigation
-Review laws about the leisure use of the countryside

238

Techniques to reduce damage of wildfires-Air Drops

-Used in rural areas
-A plane drops water
-Puts out spot fires

239

Techniques to reduce damage of wildfires-Air drops of flame retardant material

-Dropped from plane
-Prevents part of area from being burned

240

Techniques to reduce damage of wildfires-Back Fire

-Controlled preburning of area
-Burning of dry vegetation
-Should stop fire-no fuel
-Men who are parachuted in, burn the area to prevent fire spreading

241

Techniques to reduce damage of wildfires-Fire Breaks

-A gap in the forest,prevents fire spreading
-Doesn't stop flying embers

242

Prevention of Wildfires

They can be prevented by:
-Controlled burning of fuel
-Public awareness campaigns
-Fire bans during high risk times

243

Preparation for a wildfire-Methods

-Early detection
-Volunteer fire service in rural areas
-Weather warnings
-Fire proof homes

244

Fire proof houses

-Made of non combustible materials
-Concrete flooring
-Sealed windows
-Shades to prevent embers coming in
-All shrubbery removed
-A defensible space around house
-Removal of anything that could burn
-Lawns are wet

245

Wildfires-Mitigation techniques

-Satellites to detect fires
-Drones to survey wast areas
-Removal of fuel
-Natural barriers-Eg:Rivers
-Disaster aid
-Fire Insurance

246

Adapting to Wildfires

-They can help and hinder environment
-Planning regulations-Can't develop at risk areas
-Building Design-Simple,cheap,made of non polluting materials
-You choose to live there

247

Wildfires-Case study-Victoria,Australia-Causes

-Very strong winds in multiple directions
-Hottest day on record
-Very dry vegetation

248

Wildfires-Case study-Victoria,Australia-Impacts

-Houses and businesses destroyed
-450000 hectares of land destroyed
-Spot fires put Melbourne's power lines at risk
-Bunyip forest burned
-Crops lost
-Trains stopped
-173 killed
-Over 400 injured

249

Wildfires-Case study-Victoria,Australia-Responses

-Water dropped by helicopters
-Spraying house with water
-20000 fire fighters deployed
-People evacuated
-More than AUS$400 million was donated to help rebuild homes

250

Multi Hazardous Environment Case Study-The Philippines-Volcanoes

The Philippines is near a destructive plate boundary. The Philippine plate subducts under the Eurasian plate

251

Multi Hazardous Environment Case Study-The Philippines--Volcanoes-Example

Mount Pinatubo erupted in 1991. More than 700 died, 200000 became homeless, buildings collapsed,crops destroyed, agricultural land ruined by ash

252

Multi Hazardous Environment Case Study-The Philippines--Seismic Hazards

Earthquakes occur along Philippine plate boundary and at fault lines where the plate cracked under pressure

253

Multi Hazardous Environment Case Study-The Philippines-Earthquake Example

A 7.8 magnitude earthquake hit Luzon island. Over 1500 killed

254

Multi Hazard Environment Case Study-The Philippines-Earthquake and Tsunami example

A 7.9 magnitude earthquake caused a tsunami which hit the Moro Gulf. Thousands died and cities were destroyed

255

Multi Hazard Environment Case Study-The Philippines-Tropical Storms

The Philippines has 10 tropical storms a year. They develop in the Pacific Ocean and move westwards over the islands

256

Multi Hazard Environment Case Study-The Philippines-Tropical storm case study

Typhoon Xangsane destroyed houses, caused flooding,landslides and the loss of power and water. 200 died

257

Multi Hazard Environment Case Study-The Philippines--Management Strategies

-Preventing development of high risk areas
-Adaptation of buildings to cope with earthquakes
-Building embankment to reduce flood risk
-Increasing public awareness of hazards
-Monitoring hazards
-Early warning system developed

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Case Study-Boscastle Floods-Causes

-Intense heavy rain-remnant of Hurricane Alex and through line above Boscastle
-Surrounded by slate valleys-Water runs quickly
-Saturated ground-Prevent water entering ground
-Deforestation
-More water in rivers

259

Case Study-Boscastle Floods-Social Impacts

-Flooded houses
-Water and power supplies damaged
-People broke bones
-No deaths
-50 cars lost
-Tourism was affected
-Businesses destroyed

260

Case Study-Boscastle Floods-Economic Impacts

-Insurance Claims
-Businesses damaged
-Loss of tourism
-Lower bridge was destroyed

261

Case Study-Boscastle Floods-Environmental Impacts

-Raw sewage was washed out to sea and into river
-Damage to animal habitats

262

Case Study-Boscastle Floods-Short Term Responses

-Emergency services sent out
-People evacuated to Camelford
-Prince Charles donated a large sum of money
-Sandbags were used

263

Case Study-Boscastle Floods-Long Term Responses

-Reconstruction project
-Channel was widened and deepened to increase capacity
-Lower bridge replaced by stronger structure
-Buildings reconstructed in a environmentally friendly way
-Tourism increased since the floods-due to the flood